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the clergy, seminarists, organists, 
Choir-masters, choristers &c. 











London: Burns ft O.itoa, 1 7, PortmanSt., PortnianSq. — R.Washbourne, 18a, Paternoster Row 
Dublin: M. H. Gill, ft Son, 50, Upper Sackville St. 

Entered, according to Act of Congress in the year 1877 
of the firm of Fr. Pustet, 
in the Office of Librarian of Congress at "Washington, D. 








The Translator. 


59 Eccles Street Dublin. 

It has afforded me great pleasure to learn that the 
"M agister Choral is," or Manual of Plain-Chant of 
Kev. Francis Xavier Haberl, has been translated from 
German into English by the Rev. Nicholas Donnelly. 
I recommend the use of this Manual most warmly to the 
Catholic Clergy, and to all whose duty it is to study 
the Gregorian Chant. The w r ork is compiled from the 
best sources, and has been approved of by the highest 
authorities. It is calculated to introduce into our Churches 
the correct system of Ecclesiastical Chant which has 
been solemnly sanctioned by His Holiness, and which is 
so well adapted to promote feelings of piety, and to 
edify the faithful. 



Feb. 5th 1877. 


The recent publication of the Choral Books by the 
Sacred Congregation of Bites, has inaugurated a new era 
in the history of Gregorian Chant. For the first time, 
since the Antiphonarium of St. Gregory was chained to 
St. Peter's altar, we have a genuine, complete, 1 ) official 
edition of the Choral Books. This edition 2 ) enjoys the 
highest sanction, and is accompanied by a strong recom- 
mendation from the Holy Father to all the Bishops of 
the World, urging its immediate adoption; u ut exoptata 
imiformitas in S. Litargia , etiam in cantu obtinere 
valeat." 3 ) 

The Bishops of Ireland assembled in Synod at May- 
nooth, 1875: considered this recommendation of the Holy 
See, and passed the following enactment: {Cap. XIII. 
de JEucharistia art. 73) Libri vero chorales et liturgici 
nuper Batisbonce a Pustet, Bibliopola Catholico, editi, in 
missis et vesperis cantandis tarn in Seminariis quam Ec- 
clesiis posthac quamprimum adhibeantur. Hi nempe 
libri a Smo. Dno. Pio IX. plurimum commendantur eo 
quod in eis ad normam veterum manuscriptorum Ecclesice 
Piomance verus et genuimis cantu s Gregorianus tradatur, 

l ) Tho Graduate of Paul V. (of which the Ratisbon Gradual is a 
reprint) was of course official as also the " Directorium Chori" of 
Guidetti; but the Antiphonarium of Venice {Liechtenstein edition) though- 
accepted as correct and used generally was never officially recognised 
till now. 

a ) Ratisbon, Fr. Pustet, 1871. 

8 J See article in "Irish Ecclesiastical Record," August 1875, "Notes 
on Plain Chant &c." 


et "eo vel magis" ut addit idem Pontifex, "quod sit nobis 
"maxime in votis , ut cum in cceteris quce ad sacram 
"liturgiam pertinent, turn etiam in cantu, una cunctis in 
"locis et diocesibus, eademque ratio servetur, qua Montana 
"utitur Ecclesia." (JEp. Pii PP. IX. 30. Maji 1873.) 

A somewhat similar decree was formulated by the 
Synod of Westminster in the year 1873; and in a recent 
pastoral on Church Music, His Eminence, Card. Manning 
gives the result of a personal inquiry as to the authen- 
ticity and authority of the Batisbon books. 1 ) 

But the new editions however splendidly brought 
out and strongly recommended, will be of little use in 
reviving a taste for true Ecclesiastical Chant, unless 
those appointed to sing it are properly instructed. For 
this a competent master is at all times necessary, and 
a grammar or class-book which may be in the hands of 
the pupils, and from which they may more readily un- 
derstand the verbal instructions of the master. The Rev. 
Francis Xavier Haberl, Choir-Master in Batisbon Cathe- 
dral, who had been charged by the Sacred Congregation 
with the revising and editing of the new books, com- 
piled for this purpose a grammar or manual, and entitled 
it the "Magister Choralis." The 4 th edition appeared 
shortly after the new Choral Books had been published, 
and the exercises, examples, Chants &c. were all taken 
from them. Now that these books have been adopted 
in England, Ireland, and in many Dioceses of the United 
States of America, it struck me that an English version 

') "I think also it may be satisfactory to you to know that the 
"edition of the Graduate published at Ratisbon, and sanctioned by the 
'•Holy See, is founded upon the edition of Palestrina, and has been 
"elaborately revised by a Commission in Rome. It is therefore of 
"Roman origin, though printed elsewhere. This information I received 
"from the late Secretary of the Congregation of Rites, Cardinal Bartolini, 
"and from Mgr. Ricci, President of the Commission for the revision of 
"the Graduate and Vesperale Romanum" Cardinal Manning's Pastoral 
on Church Music. See "Tablet," Jan. 27. 1877. 


of this most useful and most complete manual would 
prove acceptable. With the author's permission and under 
his personal direction, — during a brief stay in Ratisbon 
in the summer of 1875, — I commenced the task. How 
I have accomplished it, is for my readers, to judge. 

I have scrupulously adhered to the order observed 
in the German original, with the slight exception of sub- 
dividing the chapter on the production of the voice, being 
firmly persuaded that sufficient attention is not generally 
devoted to this point ; but I did not add anything with- 
out consulting the best local authorities I could command. 

The Introduction also is more extended than in the 
original, as I conceived a little more of the history of 
music than what was contained in the concise chapter 
of the author, might not be unwelcome; and I have 
added a chapter for the consecration of the Holy Oils, 
a function special to Cathedral Churches. Occasionally 
through the work in some of the "Observations" and 
foot-notes, reference is made to local uses or abuses, as 
the case may be, with a view to calling attention to 
them that they may be corrected in accordance with the 
standard editions now procurable. 

The music was revised note by note and compared 
with the new choral Books, by the Author himself, who 
also furnished me with any additions or improvements 
which he thought well to introduce, and arranged that 
the 5 th German edition and this English version should 
appear simultaneously; so that in reality it may be 
termed a translation of the 5 th and latest edition. 

I feel I must apologize for the actual translation in 
many portions of the work. The technical terms and 
phrases, so concise and expressive in German, are not 
so readily turned into equally terse and flowing English ; 
and the little time I could snatch from other and more 
pressing duties, left me unable to revise the work as 


carefully as I could have wished, so that a certain stiff- 
ness of style and questionable rhetoric will' at times dis- 
close itself, for which the Translator, and not the Author 
is solely responsible. I can safely say however, that if 
the translation is not always literal, it is never unfaith- 
ful, aud the very limited proportions of original matter 
here and there introduced, whilst they may serve to 
elucidate points and technicalities with which we have 
not been hitherto quite so familiar, leave untouched the 
general principles and substantial teaching of the work, 
which derive their force and character of authenticity 
from the learning and ability of the original compiler. 
As far as I am concerned, I may describe it, as Guidetti 
described his first edition of the Directorium Chori, but 
with much more truth: "Opus quidem nullius ingenii, 
multarum tamen vigiliarum" 

If however it can in any way contribute to establish 
a more intimate acquaintance with this interesting, but too 
often neglected department of the liturgy , and help to 
forward the growing taste for a dignified and devotional 
rendering of the genuine music of the Church, it will have 
fully attained the object intended by its publication. 

Nicholas Donnelly, C. C. 
Cathedral Dublin. 

Feast of St. Agatha V. M. 
5 th February 1877. 


Translator's Preface. . 
Introduction. . . 
I. Definition of Gregorian Chant. 
II. Its Origin and early History. 

III. How we should esteem Plain-Chant. 

IV. Division of the Book. . 






1 st . Names of the Notes. — Construction of the Scale. 
2 nd . Progression of the sounds of the Scale. — Intervals. 
3 d . Notation. — Clefs. ..... 

4 th . Rhythm. — Accent. — Pauses. 

&K The Voice 

6 th . Vocalization. — Articulation. 
7 th . Pronunciation (of Latin). - Accentuation. 
8 th . Exercises to strike the note. 


PART n. 



9th. The Church Modes or Tones. .... 

10 th . Names and Classifications of the Church Tones. . 

11 th . Signs of the Tones. ...... 

12 th . Nature and characteristics of the 1 st , 2 nd , 3 d and 4 th Tones. 
13 th . Nature and characteristics of the 5 th , 6 th , 7th and 8th Tones. 
14 th . Transposition. ....... 

15 th . On the use of the Diesis or ft in Gregorian Chant. 


16th. The Liturgical Books. . . . 

17th. The Ecclesiastical Year and Calendar. 

18th. Arrangement of the Missal (Gradual) and Breviary. 


19th. Introit. — Kyrie. — Gloria, .... 
20th. The Chants for the Prayers. . 






Chapter Page 

21st. From the Epistle to the Preface. . . . .126 
22nd. The Preface. — Solemn Intonation. ... . 133 
23 d . The Preface. — Ferial Intonation. . . . .144 
24 th . The Pater noster. — Communio. .... 152 
25 th . Ite Missa est. — Benedicamus Domino. . . . 157 


26«i. Psalmody. . . . . . . . 161 

27*. The Psalms in Tono duplici et semiduplici. . . 168 

28*. Ferial Tones for the Psalms. — The Canticles. . . 173 

29*. Matins. . . . . . .177 

30*. Lauds and Benedicamus. . . . . < •. 189 

31st. Prime, Terce, Sext and None. . . . .195 

32nd Vespers and Compline. ..... 200 


33 d . The Asperges and the Litany of the Saints. . . 203 
34*. Blessing of Candles, Ashes, Palms, Paschal Candle and 

Baptismal Font. ... 207 
35*. Holy Thursday, Good Friday, and Easter Saturday ad 

Missam. . . , . . * . 219 

36*. Various Intonations. . . . . . 224 


37*. The Organ in general 229 

38*. The Organ in Plain-Chant. . . . ' . . 234 



39*. To the Clergy and Clerical Students. ... 241 
40* To Choir Masters. . . . . . .246 

41st. For Organists. 2"2 

42nd. F or Choristers . .257 


a) recitative chant. 

43 d . Psalms. Choral reading. ..... 260 

b) modulated chant. 

44*. Hymns, Sequences, Prefaces &c. . . . . 264 

c) chants in neumas or grouped notes. 
45th. The Mass chants, Antiphons, Responsories &c. . . 271 




Absolutio in Officio Matutino, pag. 184. 
Alleluja in Missa Sabbati sancti, 223. 
Alma (Intonation), 202. 
Asperges me, 204. 
Ave Regina, 202. 

Ave sanctum Chrisma (Oleum), 221. 
Benedicamus in Missa, 159. 
JBenedicamus in Officio divino, 193. 

Benedictio candel., cinerum, Palmarum, cereiPasch., fontisBapt., 207. 
Hebdomadarii in Matutino, 185. 
" Pontificalis, 225. 
Canticorum toni, 175. 
Capitulum in Officio, 190. 
Confiteor, 155. 
Credo, 132. 

Deus in adjutorium, 178. 

Domine labia mea, 177. 

Dominus vobiscum, 120. 

Ecce lignum crucis, 222. 

Ego sum (Ant. ad Benedictus), 228. 

Epistola, 126. 

Evangelium, 129. 

Exultabunt (Ant. in exequiis), 227. 

Exultet jam Angelica turba, 210. 

Flectamus genua, 122. 

Gloria, Intonationes, 117. 

Gloria, laus et honor, 209. 

Humiliate capita vestra, 122. 

Intervalla, 33. 

Ite Missa est, Toni, 157. 

Jube domne, 185. 

Lamentationis Tonus, 187. 

Lectionis Tonus, 186. 

Lectionis Tonus extraordinarius, 187. 

Litania de omnibus Sanctis, 205. 

Lumen Christi, 210. 

Martyrologium, 198. 

Orationum Tonus ferialis, 121. , 
" festivus, 118. 
" simplex ferialis, 120. 
" " in Parasceve, 123. 


Oremus, pag. 132. 

Pange lingua, 224. 

Passionis Tonus, 131. 

Pater noster, Tonus ferialis, 153. 

Tonus festivus, 153. 
Pax Domini, 155. 

Prsefationum cantus ferialis, Ul 
Prsefatio ferialis de Apostolus, 150. 
" "' communis, 151. 

" " de cruce, 146. 

de B. V. Maria, 149. 
" " in Missis Defunctorum, 151. 

" " de Nativitate Domini, 144. 

11 " in Quadragesima, 145. 

" " de Spiritu sancto, 149. 

" " Temporis Paschalis, 147. 

de Ss. Trinitate, 147. 
Prsefationum cantus festivus, 134. 
Prgefationum Tonus solemnis de Apostolis, 142. 

" " in Ascensione, 139. 
" w " communis, 143. 

de Cruce, 137. 
in Epiphania, 136. 
de B. V. Maria, 141. 
de Nativitate, 134. 
in die Paschse, 138. 
u " in die Pentecostes, 139. 
" " in Quadragesima, 136. 

de Ss. Trinitate, 140. 

Procedamus in pace, 208. 
Prophetise Tonus, 218. 
Psalmorum Toni ferialis, 173. 

" festivi, 168. 
Regina coeli, 203. 
Requiescant in pace, 160. 
Responsorium breve (in nor. canon.), 197 sequ. 
Salve Regina, 203. 

Si iniquitates (Ant. in exequiis), 227. 

Sit nomen Domini (Ant. in exequiis), 228. 

Te Deum laudamus, 189. 

Tonus peregrinus, 172. 

Yeni Creator Spiritus, 225. 

Veni sancte Spiritus (Ant.), 225. 

Yersiculorum Toni in Officio divino,, 183. 

" " " Commemoratione, 192. 

" ." " hebdomada sancta et Officio Defunct, 184. 

Vespere autem Sabbati, 223. 
Vidi aquam, 203. 



Gregorian, 1 ) Roman, 2 ) or Choral 3 ) Chant, 4 ) may 
be thus defined; a grave, diatonic, 5 ) unison mel- 
ody, 6 ) set to the rhythm of the words, without 

') Pope St. Gregory the Great (A. D. 590—604) collected, arranged, 
reformed and increased the Church melodies existing at his time, and 
laboured to propagate this reform in Church Music throughout the 
Western Church hence it is called Gregorian. 

*) Rome first introduced it, and has ever since continued to use 
it in her principal Churches. It is also called Roman Chant, to distin- 
guish it from the Gallican, Ambrosian, &c. 

3 ) Choral, because usually sung in choir (Presbyterium) , where 
the clergy assembled to recite the Divine Office and assist at the Holy 
Sacrifice." In Germany, this is the usual term for designating Gregorian 
Chant, so that wherever the word Choral occurs in a German programme 
of Church Music, we must always understand Gregorian. 

4 ) The word chant sufficiently indicates that Gregorian music is 
purely vocal. 

5 ) Diatonic i. e. by tones. The succession of sounds in Gregorian 
must be comprised within a scale of five tones and two semitones, 
that is to say, a natural scale made up of two disjoined tetrachords, 
so that in Gregorian the Chromatic or Enharmonic Scales have no 

6 ) Melody is a succession of single notes or tones, rhythmically 
arranged and producing an agreeable impression on the ear. Harmony 
is the simultaneous sounding of different, but consonant tones or notes. 



strictly measured time, and used by the Church 1 ) 
in her sacred functions. 

Observation. Gregorian Chant is distinguished by 
other appellations, especially since the discovery of Har- 
mony in the 11 th century. It is called cantus firmus (Italice 
canto fermo) i. e. firm or fixed chant, in contradistinction 
to the accompanying counterpointed 2 ) parts, which, after 
the introduction of harmony, were constructed around the 
Gregorian melody, usually given to the Tenor. Also, cantus 
planus (Gallice et Anglice plain-chant), because the Gre- 

torian melody in these many- voiced arrangements, was in- 
icated by long sustained notes, or ©, breves or semi- 
breves) of undetermined duration ; whereas the other parts 
were broken up into various note figures, and more com- 
plicated in construction. This latter appellation was so usual 
in the 15 th century, that Joannes Tinctoris, a priest of 
Flanders, and a great musical writer of that period, gives 
the following definition i( Cantus planus simplex est, qui sim- 
plicibus notis incerti valoris simpliciter est constitutus; cu jus- 
modi est Gregorianus." 

1 ) This is included in the definition, in order to determine the end 
and purpose of Gregorian Chant. It is the proper music of the Church. 
The dignity of ecclesiastical functions, and the sacredness of the words 
that are to be clothed in music, demand a peculiar and singular method 
of chant which shall he exclusively the property of the Church, and 
run no risk of being ever confounded with worldly or profane music. 
This is one of the reasons why the Church at all periods has ever 
maintained the simplicity and dignity of Gregorian Song, and in her 
Liturgical Books auihorises no other. 

2 ) Counterpoint literally signifies point against point — punctum 
contra punctum. In the infancy of harmony, musical notes or signs, 
were simple points or dots, and in compositions of two or more parts, 
these points were placed ov< r or against each other; hence counter- 
point; — that is, the art of combining and arranging the consonant 
intervals of the scale. Harmony has a more extended signification ; it 
has for its object the knowledge of concords and discords, and their 
relation to the major and minor keys; it also implies the study of 
the transitions from one key to another by appropriate modulations. 



The earliest indication of Christian song, is found, 
according to some authors, in the Gospel of St. Matthew 
Cap. xxvi. ver. 30. "And a hymn being said, they went 
out unto Mount Olivet" Certain it is, that so far back 
as Apostolic times, the singing of Psalms and Canticles 
was a Christian practice.. "Speaking to yourselves in 
psalms, and hymns, and spiritual canticles, singing and 
making melody in your hearts to the Lord " {JEp. to the 
Ephes. cap.Y. ver. 19.) A similar advice was given to 
the Colossians. The Pagan authors Lucianus and Pliny 
the younger, bear witness to the custom. The latter in 
a letter to Trajan A. D. 110, mentions the Christians 
as meeting "on a certain day before daylight, and sing- 
ing by turns a hymn to Christ as to a God;" and a- 
mongst early Christian writers we have St. Justin Mar- 
tyr, in his Apologia ad Antoninum Pium ; — St. Clement 
of Alexandria, in Orat. ad Gentes, and Tertullian who 
in chap. 30 th of his apology says: "As by the open- 
ness of their demeanour, so by the cheerfulness of voice, 
testified in singing their prayers, they declared that they 
did not worship as men without hope, like the Gentiles dc" 
St. Ignatius cf Antioch, and later on St. Basil, are wit- 
nesses for the Eastern Church. But it will not require 
any authors to prove that the music of the early Christ- 
ian Church must have been of the simplest. Previous to 
the victory of Constantine over Maxentius, the Christians 
had been subject to persecution, proscription and martyr- 
dom, and were periodically condemned to silent prayer; so 
that no regular system of Ecclesiastical Chant could have 
been well established. But it may be reasonably inferred, 
that as the Psalms and Canticles of the old Testament 
were retained in Christian worship, the very melodies of 

David and Solomon were adopted, and christianized by use. 
Some authors deem it equally probable, that the music 
of the hymns, which were first received in the Church, 
wherever Paganism had prevailed, resembled that which 
had been many ages used in the temple-worship of the 
Greeks and Romans. Of this, the versification of those 
hymns would appear to afford an indisputable proof, as 
it by no means resembles that of the Psalms, or of any 
other Hebrew poetry. Probably the opinion adopted by 
Aug. Wilh. Ambros is the correct one. "From the Musica 
Sacra of the Hebrews, the music of Christianity derived 
its sacredness, from the musical art of the Greeks, its 
form, shape and beauty." *) "The foundation of Chant," 
says the Prince Abbot Gerbert, "was the ancient music 
of the Greeks , and it was constructed on the same 
principles." 2 ) 

Pope Damasus (A. D. 367) is the first of the Pontiffs 
who is recorded to have made special regulations for 
the chanting of the Psalms, ordering that they should 
all terminate with the "Gloria Patri Sc." But it was 
not until the 4 th century of the Christian era had far 
advanced, and definite hopes for the peace of the Church 
had begun to be formed, and temples built, and Christ- 
ianity professed openly , that a great and holy Bishop 
of the Western Church undertook to reduce the art of 
Church song to some kind of order, and fix it within 
certain rules. In the latter part of this century St. 
Ambrose Bishop of Milan, suffering under the persecution 
of the Arian Empress Justina, appointed Psalms and 
Hymns to be sung antiplionally , in order to console his 
flock in their afflictions. And as he himself was well 

') Ambros. Geschichte der Musik. Vol. 1. pag. 196. 

*) " Fundamentum cantus, erat antiquus cantus Grcecorum, atque 
iisdem insistebat principiis." Gerbert u De cantu et musica Sacra." See 
also Alfieri's: "Saggio Storico Teorico - Pratico del canto Gregoriano o 
Romano." Rome 1835. 


instructed in the art of Music, he introduced a system 
of Church melody, in which he chose out of the fifteen 
modes, or systems of tetrachords used hy the Greeks, four 
series, or successions of tones (notes), and called them 
simply, first, second, third and fourth. And from this 
great Doctor of the Church, we have what is known in 
history as the Ambrosian Chant. What the peculiar charm 
of this chant was, it is not easy at this distance of time 
to determine, for no trace remains of any system or 
series of notes different from the Gregorian in any es- 
sential feature, but that it had a charm, possibly due 
to its extreme simplicity and metrical progression, is 
evident from the Confessions of St. Augustine: "When 
I remember the tears I shed at the Psalmody of the 
Church, in the beginning of my recovered faith, and how 
at this time I am moved not with the singing, but with 
the things sung, when they are sung w r ith a clear voice, 
and suitable modulation, I acknowledge the great use of 
this institution." {Confessions lib. x. 33. 50.) 

To St. Gregory the Great however (A. D. 590-604) 
it was reserved by Providence to make almost perfect 
the w r ork commenced by St. Ambrose. He collected the 
existing tunes or chants, improved them, added many 
new ones, and published an entire collection, with the 
method of singing them, as fixed precepts for all Christ- 
ian Churches. His Antiphonary, Antiphonarium 1 ) Cen- 
tonem*) was chained to the altar of St. Peter's, in order 
that it might be referred to on all occasions, and be made 
the means of correcting any changes which might casually 
occur in the course of succeeding years. He established 

') Antiphonarium; — the book which contains the Antiphons or 
authems. In a more extended sense, the collection of all the music 
used in the Church's ritual. 

2 ) "Centonem vocant carminis genus ex diver sis carminum frag- 
mentis, hinc atque Mine accersitis, contextum, quasique consutum" Vid. 
Martini "Storia della Musica" Vol. 2. pag. 308. Note 33. 


a new system of scales, fresh names to the notes, as well 
as new and simplified characters for writing music. 

In his system of scales he retained the four already 
mentioned of St. Ambrose, adding to them four others, 
which were produced by transposing those of St. Ambrose 
a fourth lower; by this arrangement, the principal tone, or 
key note, as it might be called, which formerly appeared 
as the first or fundamental note, now, in the newly added 
scales, appeared in the middle, or more properly as the 
fourth of the succession; these additional four scales 
being called plagal , to distinguish them from the four 
more ancient, which received the name of authentic. 

He made an important improvement by discarding 
the tetrachord system of the Greeks, and founding in its 
place the system of the octave, the only one which na- 
ture indicates ; and another improvement no less import- 
ant , in connexion with his system of the octave , was 
the introduction of a most simple nomenclature of the 
seven sounds of the scale, by means of the first seven 
letters of the alphabet. His notation also, the u neumata" 
or "nota Bowiana" (points, curves or strokes), although 
before the introduction of subsequently invented lines it 
was very imperfect, and did not determine with certainty 
the names of the notes or their distances from each 
other, gave nevertheless an indication of the rising or 
falling of the voice to the mind of the beholder , and 
"was always more reasonable," as Kiesewetter writes, 
"than those multitudes of arbitrary signs which con- 
stituted the 1620 straight, tumbling, oblique, mangled, 
"mutilated, or distorted signs of the ancient Grecian 

For the propagation of his reforms, he established 
and endowed two singing schools in Rome, in which he 
himself taught, and from which teachers of the Roman 
Liturgical Chant were sent into France and England. 

John the Deacon who wrote his life says: "Though he 
"had upon his hands all the affairs of the universal 
"Church, and was still more hurthened with distempers, 
"yet he took time to examine the tones, measures, moods 
"and notes most suitable to the majesty of the Church, 
"and most proper to inspire devotion, and he formed 
"that Ecclesiastical music so grave and edifying, which 
"at present is called Gregorian Music. His bed from 
"which, when sick, he strove to teach the singers, was 
"preserved with great veneration in the palace of St. John 
"Lateran, as also the whip, wherewith he threatened the 
"young clerks and singing boys, when they made mis- 
takes or failed in their notes." *) 

Thanks especially to the energy of Charlemagne, the 
chant of St. Gregory was propagated over the entire 
Western Church. In the commencement of the 9 th century 
renowned schools flourished in various cloisters of France 
and Germany ; and by the time of St. Odo of Clugny 
(879-942) the influence of his reform was universal. 2 ) 

The system which St. Gregory left behind him was 
capable of being cultivated to the highest possible degree ; 
and under tolerably favourable circumstances, there might 
have been derived from it a perfect music. But as time 
rolled on, St. Gregory's good system began to fall into 
oblivion, and even his chants, handed clown only tradi- 
tionally by ear and memory, were in danger of degen- 
erating and being lost. 3 ) The greatest obstacle to the 
preservation of singing , in the purity of its original 
precepts , was to be found in the want of a clear and 
defined notation. The neumata exclusively introduced 

') Maiinbourg "Histoire dn Pontiflcat de St. Gregoire I er " 
l ) "Cujus praecepta" speaking of St. Gregory 7 "in omnibus stu- 
diosissime sancta observat Ecclesia." CAp. Gerbert.) 

3 ) Cantus per haec signa (neumata) nemo potest per se addiscere, 
sed oportet ut aliunde audiatur, et longo usu discatur, et propter hoc 
hujus cantus nomen us us accepit. (Gerbert Scrip, t. til. p. '202.) 


into the books of the ritual, were, previous to the intro- 
duction of lines, most uncertain. They were points, little 
hooks, strokes, and flourishes, in different shapes and 
directions; these represented to the singer by their 
position the height of tone, and by their shape the in- 
flexion, i. e. the rising or falling of the voice. A spec- 
imen, which I take from Padre Martini's History of 
Music, will best explain their difficulty. 

(cr fee ^Yi't \ui me of nt£c muif vu it" 

This kind of notation has one important defect, in- 
asmuch as it is scarcely possible for the writer to put 
down a mark so correctly, that the. reader (singer) may 
not take the sound of one or more notes higher or lower 
than the one intended. And John Cottonius a Monk of 
Triers (A. D. 1047) frequently quoted by Gerbert, wittily 
says "that the same marks which Master Trudo sung as 
"thirds, were sung as fourths by Master Albinus ; and 
"Master Salomo in another place even asserts the fifths 
"to be the notes meant, so that at last there were as 
"many methods of singing as teachers of the art." 
This was in some degree remedied during the ninth and 
tenth centuries, when a line was drawn parallel with the 
words of the text; — as in the specimen we have just 
given, which belongs to this period ; — above and below 
which the neumata or marks were inscribed. For this 
improvement, as probably for the use of a second line, we 
are indebted to Hucbald of St. Amand, a Flemish monk, 
(A. D. 930) who also gets the credit of the first rude 
attempt at counterpoint, called by him organum. 

Such was the state of Church Music, when about a 
century after Hucbald's death (A. D. 1020, or somewhat 


later), we hear of Guido of Arezzo, a Benedictine 
monk in the monastery at Pomposa, near Ravenna. This 
venerable man saw more clearly than his predecessors 
that Church singers were not to be formed after any 
speculative theory; but that it required for the pur- 
pose a most simple and elementary theory, and a rea- 
sonably practical method. He was at all events so fort- 
unate as to invent such a method, and the reputation 
of his performances reached the ears of Pope John the 
nineteenth , who governed the Church from the year 
1024 to 1033. This Pontiff invited Guido to Rome, and 
gave him most honourable proofs of his satisfaction, after 
having in one lesson, under his direction, advanced him- 
self so far as to understand and sing a chant pre- 
viously unknown to him, from the antiphonary brought by 
Guido, and after the manner of notation which he had 
invented. The singers of those days could scarcely have 
accomplished the same task in the course of a lifetime. 
He is the reputed author of the hexachord and solmi- 
sation, having introduced the use of the syllables Ut. 
Be. Mi. Fa. do. But his greatest and most important 
merit consisted in the improvement and appropriate ar- 
rangement of notation. Some suppose him to have been 
the inventor of the notes in their present shape ; but 
this opinion is without foundation, as nothing beyond 
the neumata and the Gregorian letters are mentioned 
in his work. To the latter he was particularly partial, 
and he declared them to be the best tone-characters ; 
nevertheless he by no means repudiated the neumata, if 
carefully written and properly applied: to which end he 
added two other lines to the two coloured key lines for- 
merly invented, thus making a stave of four lines, and 
then taught the use, not only of the lines themselves, 
but of the spaces between them, so that each neuma 
(sign or mark) received its due place, which could not be 


changed or mistaken, and thus all ambiguity was removed. 
Most authors, those in particular who wrote in the seven- 
teenth century, and especially those of Italy, have re- 
garded Guido as the restorer of music, whilst many of 
them look upon him as the inventor of it; and they are 
convinced that to him alone we are indebted for all we 
know or can perform in reference to the art at the 
present moment. Certain it is that in Gregorian Music, 
he rendered easy what previous to his time had been 
most difficult , and , with the exception of the definite 
shaping of the notes, which occurred about a century 
later, the practical disuse of the hexachord and return 
to the octave system , with a new syllable Si for the 
seventh degree of the scale, no change has been made 
in it since his time ; and as Guido left it, so it remains. 
Previous to Guido's time and ever since, Gregorian Chant 
has been the music of the Church, and for three cen- 
turies after his time the only Music heard in the Church, *) 
and even though Palestrina by his wonderful application 
of the principles of counterpoint succeeded in obtaining 
a "locus standi" in the Church for polyphonous or figured 
chant, yet the principle, that Gregorian is the proper li- 
turgical music of the Church has never been surrendered. 
Various versions of the liturgical Chants appeared from 
time to time in different countries and different Dioceses, 
but whilst the Teachers of these oftentimes conflicting 
methods, strove with exemplary zeal to prove their own 

') "People are supposed to have a predilection for "mediaeval" 
music, as they might have for old china, or the paintings of the pre- 
Raffaelite masters; and while those whose tastes lie in an opposite 
direction shrug their shoulders with a good humoured "De gustibus 
&c.*' the advocates of Plain-Song are too often content to rest their 
advocacy on no higher grounds . . . The adoption of the modern style 
in the service of the Church is not the development of crude germs, 
as the man is the development of the infant, but the abandonment of 
a matured and developed , and adoption of a deliberately proscribed, 
system. It is not progress, but retrogression." See Preface to "The 
Plain-Song Reason Why," by C. Walker. London. Novello. 


peculiar chants identical with the original strains of St. 
Gregory , they never lost sight of the principle laid 
down by St. Gregory himself, that the foundation of all 
or any of their musical systems should be the "melody 
of language" This principle was still vigorous even after 
the 13 th century, when partly .owing to the inartistic 
methods of execution, and partly to the mannerisms of 
the singers loading the chant with all manner of ex- 
traneous ornamentation, abbreviations began to be intro- 
duced, oftentimes more than was necessary or advisable. 
^Nevertheless these abbreviations went hand in hand with 
the alterations in the Liturgy and the circumstances of 
the times. 

The Roman Church in particular, ever regarded 
the Gregorian, as her peculiar chant. She claimed and 
exercised the right to extend the alterations made by 
her authority in the Missal and Breviary to Gregorian 
Song, and never published the Liturgical Books without 
it. Towards the end of the 16 th century, and when the 
Council of Trent had become a thing of history , a new 
zeal developed itself in Rome for establishing uniformity 
in Liturgy and Chant; and in furtherance of this good 
purpose, there appeared in 1582 the JDirectorium Cliori, 
Cantus ecclesiasticus officii maj. held. 1587, Prcefationes 
in cantu firmo 1588; all by Guidetti under the auspices 
of Gregory XIII. and Sixtus V. ; then the Graduate 
Bomanum from the Medicaean printing offices in the 
years 1614 and 1615, and tlie Bituale Bomanum 1614 
both at the command of Paul V. The Hymns , which 
Palestrina had published in the year 1589 were at the 
request of Urban VIII. reprinted in 1644 with Gregorian 
notation, and everywhere there was diffused abroad an 
emulation in publishing in large or small editions the 
Gregorian Music for the several functions of the Liturgy, 
and facilitating its performance. 


During the present long and laborious Pontificate 
various efforts have been made to bring out new and 
authentic editions of the Plain-Chant Books. In 1848 
the Abbe de Voght and E. Duval, edited with Epis- 
copal sanction the Roman Gradual, Vesperal and other 
books ; taking for the basis of the Gradual , the Med- 
icaean edition published under Paul V. 1615, yet not 
giving an exact reprint , as in the "Ordinarium 
Missse" they followed the Antwerp editio Plantiniana 
because better known in Belgium; and for the Vesperale 
the Venice edition of 1580. Meanwhile a commission 
appointed by the Archbishops of Reims and Cambrai 
were engaged on a similar work, following the Ms. of 
Montpellier, — an Antiphonary of the 10 th century, noted 
in neumes or signs. The Gradual issued by this com- 
mission appeared in 1851, and the Antiphonarium at 
a later date, printed by Jacques Lecoffre & Co. Paris. 
Pere Lambillote S. J. based his researches on the Ms. 
of St. Gall, an Antiphonary in neumatic notation of much 
earlier date , supposed to be a copy of St. Gregory's 
Antiphonarium Centonem that was kept chained to 
St. Peter's altar. This edition appeared after the com- 
piler's death in 1857. These various editions, though 
highly commendable in a typographical sense , and 
evidencing a zeal in the cause of true Church Music, 
for which their editors and publishers were eulogised 
in special briefs by His Holiness, yet did not tend to 
promote that uniformity in the sacred chant, which 
the Holy See was anxious to bring about. Wherefore 
our most Holy Father resolved to have the whole sub- 
ject reconsidered, and ordered the Sacred Congregation 
of Rites to undertake the task. A commission of four 
experts was established by the S. Congregation. The 
Medicaean Edition of the Gradual A. D. 1615 was 
adjudged to be the one of all others containing the 


"Cantum Gregoriamim quern semper Rom ana Ecclesia re- 
tinuit" The Liechtenstein edition of the Antiphonarium 
(Venice 1580) was selected for the authentic Music of the 
Divine office; and Rev. Haberl. Domkapellmeister in Ratis- 
bon, who revised every page as it was prepared, arranged, 
according to Gregorian rules and tonality, the chant for 
the New Feasts and Offices added since the 17 th century. 
The publication of these works was entrusted to Herr 
Frederick Pustet of Ratisbon, who enjoys a thirty years 
privilegium , and has had commendatory Briefs and 
the Cross of St. Gregory from the Pope, in recognition 
of the truly magnificent style in which he has brought 
them out. Already he has published the Graduale 
Romanum, in Folio and in 8 V0 . the Yesperale in 
8 V0 , the Directorium Chori in 8 V0 , the Ordo Exe- 
quiarum in 8 V0 , the Officium Nativitatis D. N. J. C. 
in 8 V0 , the Officium Hebdomads Sanctse in 8 V0 , 
Processionale Romanum, Benedictionale Roma- 
num, Rituale Romanum &c. The Antiphonarium 
in Folio is in progress, and is almost the only work 
now remaining to complete the series. 

There can be little doubt that from the authority 
which it enjoys, edited by the S. Congregation^ and re- 
commended for adoption by the Pope to all Bishops of 
the universal Church, ut exoptata imiformitas etiam in 
cantu obtineri valeat , as well as from its superiority in 
every sense ; melody, accent &c. ; this edition of Ratis- 
bon will displace all others and attain the end so much 
desired by the Holy See. 

It is now the official authorised edition for the use of 
the entire Church, and as such adopted in Rome, Germany, 
many parts of France, the United States of America, by 
the Synod of Westminster 1873 for all England, and by 
the Synod of Maynooth 1875 for all Ireland. 



The best praise that can be bestowed on Gregorian 
Chant, is, its history, which I have very cursorily sketched 
in the preceding paragraph. Bound up as it has been 
with the ceremonial of the Catholic Church, and per- 
vading her whole liturgical existence, it becomes a wit- 
ness to her unity. The language to which it is wedded, 
is so sonorous and dignified; the place where it is heard 
so holy ; and the strain itself so simple, clear, and yet 
so sublime, all this determines its purpose, makes it a 
constituent part of the Church's ritual, and testifies to 
the influence of the Holy Spirit, who is said to have 
inspired its originator, St. Gregory the Great. "The 
"Catholic knows its worth, when he goes to the most 
"distant part of the globe, and finds there the service 
"of the Church, even to the smallest detail, just as he 
"left it at home." 1 ) But what is its intrinsic worth? "We 
"can scarce imagine," writes Ambros in his History of 
Music, "a more expressive manner of singing, or one 
"that so thoroughly satisfies all the demands of the 
"Liturgy." 2 ) The Protestant Herder says: "Go through 
"the Ritual of the Roman and Greek Churches, you find 
"vast edifices, nay labyrinths of the musical and poetical 

"The Choral (cantus gregorianus)" writes Witt in 
his Musica Sacra (1868 pag. 90), "is the most finished 
"and most sublime production of that Art-epoch, when 
"Melodies were found, without having to think of their' 
"accompaniment or harmonization: it is an imperishable, 

') Culturhistorische Bilder aus dem Musikleben der Gegenwart, 
von A. W. Ambros. 

2 ) Ambros. Vol. 2 Ild . pag. 67. 


"unattainable master-piece of natural musical decla- 
ration." The Council of Trent in few but decided 
words, commanded the "teaching and cultivation of the 
" chant in Diocesan seminaries and similar institutes." 1 ) 
Thenceforward Rome and several national and provincial 
Councils enacted similar decrees. 2 ) Of Gregorian Chant 
it may be safely said what Goethe remarks: "Music in 
"its best sense stands little in need of novelty, as the 
"older it is, and the more one is accustomed to it, the 
"more impressive it becomes." No doubt Gregorian Chant 
demands earnest and persevering study, but an appre- 
ciation of it will not fail to grow up, for it rewards its 
friends richly. "The Choral is not the work of individ- 
uals, of this or that composer, it is the music of the 

"Church The Priest who represents the heavenly 

"bridegroom, entones the wedding song ; and the friends 
"of the bridegroom join in holy love and joy." 3 ) "The 
"Gregorian is of quite a different artistic construction 
"from modern music, it has melodies of a peculiar kind, 
"that require peculiar treatment." 4 ) The prejudices that 
have arisen against Gregorian Chant , originate either 
through ignorance of its real nature and purpose , or 
because of the way in which it is, alas! too frequently 
disfigured by a faulty rendering. Bad execution of 
Gregorian Chant has beyond all doubt brought it into 
disrepute ; whereas a man has but to work with perseve- 
rance in learning its spirit and true form, to be forced 

') Cone. Trid. Sess. XXIII, cap. 18 de Reformatione. 

2 ) The Roman Council of 1725, — the provincial Council of Bnl- 
timore 1837, — the plenary Council of Baltimore 1866, — the provin- 
cial Council of Cologne 1860, — the national Synod of Thurles 1850, 
— the national Synod of Westminster 1873, and the national Synod 
of Maynooth 1875, all have decrees or recommendations bearing on 
the same point. 

3 ) Amberger, Pastoraltheologie. II. vol. 228. 

A ) M. PAbbe Cloet, Recueil de melodies liturgiques. Tom. II. p. 24. 


to acknowledge its sublimity and grandeur. Luther whilst 
assailing most of the discipline as well as doctrine of 
the Church, saw its beauty, and in a preface to a 
book of popular devotions we read : — "Besides I have 
"taken the beautiful music or song which belongs to 
"Masses for the dead funerals, &c. , and have printed 
"it in this book of music, and mean in time to take 
"more. Of course I have put other words to it. . . The 
"song and the notes are very valuable; it were a shame 
"that they should be lost." 

Even the infamous Rousseau in his Lexicon Musicum, 
article "Plain-Chant," says: "It is a name that is 
"given in the Roman Church at this day to the eccle- 
siastical song. There remains to it enough of its former 
"charms to be far preferable for the use to which 
"it is destined, to the effeminate and theatrical, frothy 
"and flat pieces of music which are substituted for 
"it in many churches , devoid of all gravity , taste 
"and propriety , without a spark of respect for the 
"place they dare thus to profane." Again (Diet, de 
Musique) he says, "So far from modifying the Plain- 
" Chant by our modern music, I am persuaded that we 
"should gain by transporting the old Gregorian modes 
"into our modern compositions." 1 ) The London "Times" 
of February 24 th 1865 describing the obsequies of Car- 
dinal Wiseman says "Unlike ordinary masses, it lacks 
"^he magnificent music of the Gloria and Credo, nor 
"has it even those exquisitely touching lamentations 
"with which even very rigid Protestants are familiar as 
"forming part of the beautiful service called Tenebrce. 
"Nevertheless in spite of these great omissions, a Be- 
u quiem Mass [in Gregorian Chant, remember], is one of 
"the grandest services of the Roman Church, and abounds 

') See "Dublin Review" July 1874. article "Plain-Chant." 


"in chants and hymns of such deep solemn pathos in 
" their music, of such a mournful melody of woe, as no 
il description can convey!' Of the Dies Irce the writer 
remarks : 

"The magnificent chorale of this great song of fear 
u and entreaty , was given in such a way . . . that there 
"was a positive murmur among the congregation as its 
"long, sad, wailing chorus closed at last in intervals of 
"melancholy sounds." Burney in Vol. II. of his great 
history of music, says of Gregorian Music; — "It has be- 
"come venerable from its antiquity, and the use to which 
"it is solely appropriated; and its simplicity, and total 
"difference from secular music, precludes levity in the 
"composition, and licentiousness in the performance." 
Mr. Gautter in his Lectures on Ecclesiastical Music de- 
livered at the Hanover Square Eooms London 1846, 
declared Gregorian Song; to be "at once the simplest and 
"sublimest strain; it totally differs from secular music; 
"and it excludes difficulty and intricacy of composition, 
"and carelessness in the performance. It is the best means 
"for bringing into. action the power of the voice, that 
"noblest organ of the human frame. The Plain-Chant 
"has been justly called 'the voice of the Church'; — 
"it is the very perfection of speech." 

But how did great Musicians value it? I need not 
quote Palestrina, the Prince of Music. One need only look 
through any of his numerous compositions to see, how 
he always selected the melodies of the Chant as subjects 
for contrapuntal effects, and so rendered his works im- 
mortal. Let us take Sebastian Bach, who is deservedly 
revered as the Parent and Founder of all that is good 
and great in modern music. Just glance at some of his 
best Chorales, and you will see the very number of the 
(Gregorian) mode quoted, on which he constructed most 
elaborate and beautiful harmonies. Mozart said: — "he 



"would give all his glory as a composer in such an age, 
"for that of having been the writer of a single Preface." 
Mehul in his Opera of "Joseph," Meyerbeer in the 
"Huegenots," and Gounod, in at least one of his Operas, 
have all introduced Gregorian Chant unisons with won- 
derful effect. Mendelssohn was very fond of incorporating 
it in his- Chorales, notably in the strophe "Docti sacris 
&c" of his Lauda Sion, which is taken note for note 
from the Gregorian Sequence. It is to be regretted that 
Rossini did not do likewise when he sat down to write 
his "Stabat Mater;" and he might have produced some- 
thing more appropriate than a triumphal military march 
to the affecting words, Cujus animam gementem ; or than 
a dance tune to the Sancta mater istud agas. One of 
the greatest musical composers of the present day is 
acknowledged to be Richard Wagner. No one that is 
even remotely acquainted with any one of his works, will 
accuse him of any very decided antipathy to instrumental 
effects. Yet when he comes to speak of Gregorian, here 
is what he says: "The human voice which is the proper 
"renderer of the sacred text, and not instrumental or- 
namentation, or I should say, that trivial fiddling which 
"enters into most of our present Church music, should 
"take the lead in the Church; and if ecclesiastical music 
"'is ever to be restored to its original purity, vocal music 
"must oust the instrumental, and occupy the place this 
"has usurped." After so many testimonies both from 
friends and foes, I will conclude this paragraph with just 
one more, that of the Cistercian writer Mauritius Vogt. *) 
"These fixed, measured, emphatic, sublime, true, chaste, 
"free-breathing, beautiful and truly holy melodies, have 
"been composed by holy men. This song , eschews the 
"court of the Prince, and never enters the Concert Hall 

') In "Tractatus Musicus" of P. Meinrad Spiess. cap. XV. p. 70. 


"or Music Saloon; it ventures within the Holy of Holies 
"and abides there. No one has ever sought to drive it 
"from out of the Church of God, unless he did not be- 
long to the Church of God. This kind of Music has ever 
1 4 commanded honour and esteem, because like a Queen, 
"she sets up her throne in the Temples of the Most 
'•High, and with clear voice makes herself heard, when 
"the preacher is silent in the Chancel. But if her sister, 
"figured music, has anything to say, let her value the 
"axiom: Musica debet esse honesta; 1 ) music must be 
••appropriate, and must not disfigure the plain-chant; 
•-non debet deformare cant-am planum:' 

It is undoubtedly a healthy sign to see the giant 
strides which the young society of St. Cecilia (CdciUen- 
Verein, founded in 1868) , has made in Germany and 
the United States of America , in its efforts to reform 
Church music, and revive a taste for Plain-Chant; the 
study of which is compulsory on its members, and the 
very first of its Statutes. It is also a healthy sign that 
the efforts of the Holy See in the same direction have 
been ably seconded by private enterprise, and by public 
enthusiasm, and that the truly splendid authorised edi- 
tions of the Sacred Congregation of Rites printed by Herr 
Pustet of Piatisbon, have been so readily and so generally 
adopted; thus conducing to uniformity "etiam in cantn/' 
and removing from us the reproach formerly addressed by 
St. Paul to the Corinthians; "How is it then brethren? 
"When you come together, every one of you hath a psalm, 
"hath a doctrine, hath a revelation, hath a tongue, hath 
"an interpretation.'' (1. Cor. xiv. v. 26.) And now T that the 
Church of Ireland, in the National Synod of Maynooth, 
imitating the action taken by the great Archbishop of 
Armagh St. Malachy, as we read in his life by St. 

l ) Extravag. de vita et hon. Clericorum. Cap. Docta. 



Bernard, has identified her Chant, as well as her Liturgy, 
with that of Rome, it only remains for us to adopt the 
advice of the Apostle, given in the concluding words of 
the verse above quoted; '"let all things be done to edifi- 
cation." Let the Clergy, the Laity, Seminarists, Organists, 
Choir Masters, and all concerned, unite to study, cultivate 
and popularize , that integral portion of the Church's 
Liturgy: — the Chant of St. Gregory. 


In order to facilitate the study of the Principles 
and Practice of Plain-Chant, the matter may be classi- 
fied under the following heads. 


Though this little book is not intended to be an 
Instruction Book on the Art of Singing, yet as ' in many 
points the same principles are applicable to Plain-Song, 
which are used in teaching singing; in Part I. we 
will give explanations of Sounds, Intervals, Notes, Lines, 
Clefs, Rhythm, Voice, Pronunciation &c, in a word, every- 
thing that is necessary for acquiring a knowledge of the 
elements of Plain-Song. 


This heading will be sub-divided into two parts. — 
a) Theoretical, — teaching the nature and characteris- 
tics of the ancient Tones or Modes', b) Practical; — 
in which we will explain the Ecclesiastical Calendar, the 


arrangement and use of the several Liturgical Books, 
and the whole department of Gregorian Music. In 
past times, Choral-Song was divided into Concentus and 
Accent us. 

Observation. Under the name Accenius, were classed 
those portions of the Ritual Song chanted or intoned by 
the officiating Priest, the Deacon, Sub-Deacon or other 
Sacred Ministers at the Altar ; in contradistinction to 
Concentus, which referred to all that should be sung 
by the Assistants or by a special trained Choir. To the 
Accentus belong, the Intonations of the Gloria and Credo, 
the Preface, Pater noster, Gospel, Epistle, Collects and 
Prayers, the Passion, Prophecies and Martyrology. To the 
Concentus the Introit, Kyrie, Gloria and Credo {minus 
the intonation), Gradual and Tract, Sequence, Offertory, 
Sanctus, Agnus Dei, Communion, Antiphons, Responsories, 
Hymns &c. 

To follow the order indicated by the Sacred Liturgy, 
and the arrangement of the Music in connection there- 
with, the Chant incidental to the Holy Sacrifice of the 
Mass will be first treated of: then that of the Canonical 
Hours; and lastly, extraordinary Functions. 

An Appendix to this part of the Book will treat 
of the Organ, and contain special directions for accom- 
panying Gregorian Chant. 

Observation. The examples given in the body of 

the work, will be taken, both for the Accentus, and 

Concentus from the Official Editions published by *Herr 
Pustet of Ratisbon. 


If Gregorian Chant is ever to revive and fiourish, 
constant, earnest, and attentive Practice of it must be 
insisted on. A mere theoretical or scientific acquaintance 
with it is not enough. 


Consequently, this section of the Book will contain, 
1 st , general instructions on the manner of rendering 
Plain-Chant, the spirit of Plain-Chant, and its intimate 
connection with the Liturgy; 2 nd , particular directions 
for the rendering of a) recitative Chant, such as we 
have in the Psalms; b) modulated Chant, as in the 
Hymns, Sequences &c. ; and c) neumatized chant, as in 
the Introits, Graduals, Antiphons and Responsories. 




L Music 1 ) is the art of producing sounds in a cer- 
tain order and connexion agreeable to the ear. It may be 
either vocal or instrumental, according as the sounds 
are produced by the human voice, or by an instrument. 2 ) 

Plain- Chant is essentially vocal music, a free 
recitation or recitative, modified by certain musical in- 
flections or accents. 

All sounds make on the ear the impression of high 
or low, 5 ) long or short, loud or soft. 

To represent or indicate the different musical 
sounds according to their acuteness or gravity , a cor- 

1 ) Musica est scientia recte modulandi sono cantuque congrua. 
Aurelianus Beom. (9 th century) in Gerbert. torn. I. 30. 

2 ) Music is also divided into Theoretical and Practical. As 
a theory, it investigates the nature, properties, relations and effects 
of sounds ; and prescribes the principles for regulating and determining 
their different combinations. As an Art or Practice, it applies those 
principles in musical composition, and directs its performance. In 
reference to its specific purpose, it is styled, — Church -Music, # 
Chamber-Music, Concert, Dramatic, or Military Music. 

8 ) By a high sound is meant, not a loud but an acute sound; and 
by a low, not a weak or whispering, but a grave deep, sound. 


responding order of names, or signs, — called notes, 
— becomes necessary. 

It is not quite certain whether St. Gregory was the 
first to indicate musical sounds by the Letters of the 
Alphabet ; *) but it is well ascertained, that, at a very 
early period , the first seven capital letters , and the 
seven corresponding small letters, ABCDEFGab 
c d e f g were used to designate, the different musical 
sounds, and the compass, within which all Plain-Chant 
melodies were comprised. This compass in modern nota- 

{3t. Gregory took the entire Grecian scale, a com- 
pass of fifteen different sounds, as the basis of his system. 
But reflecting that the sounds after the 7 th of the system, 
were but a repetition of those before it, in a- higher 
pitch, and that every septenary in progression was 
precisely the same, he adopted the first seven letters of 
the Alphabet as names for the sounds, using Capitals 
for the first septenary, and small letters for the second. 

') The Greeks , the only people amongst the Ancients that seem 
to have cultivated the science of Music, had a very elaborate and 
complex system of notation. The number of characters required in the 
old Greek semeiography may well excite our wonder; the reason is, 
as Forkel very justly observes, "that they overlooked all similitude in 
"those things which were to be marked, and gave separate signs to 
"each of them, as if they were in themselves distinctly different." 
The number of tone characters with which musicians were compelled 
to burden their memory was no less than 1620. Boetius, (a Roman 
Consul, author of "Latin Commentaries on the ancient Grecian Musical 
Theorists" and beheaded in 524 at Rome) instead of the incredibly 
difficult nomenclature ol the ancient Greek scales or notes; — such as 
Proslambanomenos, — Paranete synemmenon, — Hyperbolaeon diatonis, 
&c. &c. — employed seventeen or eighteen letters; some say fifteen 
from i to P; not with the intention of introducing a new nomen- 
clature, but that he might abbreviate his work, and spare the patience 
of his readers. This, perhaps, may have given St. Gregory the idea of 
using alphabetical letters. 


tion would be indicated thus 


This is called the system of the octave, the octave or 
8 th sound being a repetition of the first. 

To this scale of St. Gregory was subsequently added 
a lowermost note designated by the Greek letter V 
(Gamma). Many writers place the introduction of this 
note, and the extension of the scale upwards, almost a 
century before the appearance of Guido d'Arezzo (born 
1002). l ) 

Observation. This venerable man, a native of Arezzo 
in Tuscany, to whom the Science of Music owes so much, 
was a Benedictine monk in the monastery of Pomposa near 
Ravenna. His name is known wherever civilization has 
extended, and it has enjoyed uninterrupted celebrity to 
this day. All writers of Histories of Music, such as Padre 
Martini, Dr. Burney, Sir John Hawkins, the Abbot Gerbert 
and others , bear ample testimony to the services rendered 
by this good religious not only to Plain -Chant, but to 
Music in general. 

Besides the addition of the Gamma, Guido extended m 
the scale upwards, from g, 2 ) where St. Gregory's scale 
ended, to dd, and his immediate pupils added another 
note, ee, so that Guido's scale or musical system reckons 
21 sounds, thus: 

FABC J)EFG a¥tcd eTg"aa bTTSciTdd and ee 

graves. finales. acutae superacutae. excellentes. superadded. 

l ) Guido himself says T a modernis adjunctum. Vide Micrologus. 
See also Angeloni, Kiesewetter, Ambros &c. 

'*) The first great octave of the scale (in German Grosse Bassoct.) 
is written with capital letters, as in St. Gregory's scale; the second, 
{Wine Bassoct.) with small letters as a ; the third with small letters 
doubled as aa or jj. In Germany they express the latter octave by 
a small letter with a single line or stroke above or below, thus a or 
a, and hence called the single-lined octave, — einmalgestrichene ; and 
a fourth octave, as we have in modern music, is expressed in small 
letters with two lines or strokes above or below, thus & or a, and 
called the double-lined octave, — zweimalgestrichene. This system is 
particularly convenient, since without making use of the stave we 
know that A is the first space in the bass, a the fifth line in the bass; 
a the second space in the treble, and a or a the sixth line in the 
treble, or first ledger line above. 


The note b, in the second septenary, and bb in the 
third, (not the first B) may represent our b\ natural 
(b durum or quadratuni), or > i. e. b flat (b molle or 
rotundum); hence the 21 sounds. 

"The graves, (grave or deep), are so called from 
"their low deep sound; the finales, (final), because every 
"melody, (as we shall see further on when we come to 
"speak of the Modes) terminates in one or other of 
"them; the acutce, (acute or sharp), from their high acute 
"sound; the super acutce , because still higher than the 
"acute; and the excellentes , (excelling), because of the. 
"high pitch and fineness of their tone." 1 ) These sounds 
had no fixed pitch, as in modern music; a for example 
might be sounded as our provided only the half tone 
which occurs between B-C, E-F, a-b, bi^-c, e-f, aa-bb, 
bb^-cc be retained in its proper place. 

Guido himself, or Guido's school has also the credit 
* of adopting the syllables used ever since in solmisation 
or solfaing. They were the initial syllables of the words 
contained in the first verse of the hymn sung on the 
Feast of St. John the Baptist, written by Paul the Deacon 
A. I). 774. 

They are Ut. Be. Mi. Fa. Sol. La; and the verse is: 

Ut que ant lax is Famuli tuorum 

Jlesonare fibris, SoW polluti 

Mir# gestorum LaM reatum, 

Sancte Joannes. 

The music to which this hymn was written was so 
constructed, that each of the first six lines of the verse 
began with a different note in regular order, ascending 
from c to a, thus C D E F G a, as may be seen in the 
Vesper ale Bomanum, page 380. [Batisbon 1875,] 

') u Pie Choralkompositionslehre vom 10.— 13. Jahrhundert," of 
Father Utto Kornmuller in "Monatshefte fur Musikgeschichte." 1872. 
page 63. 


In this succession of six Tones, called thenceforward 
a Hexachord, the half tone lies between the 3 d and 4 th 
degree of the first septenary, E-F; the same occurs in 
the second septenary from c to act. 

Observation. There is some reason to suppose that 
Guido taught with successful results, before he stumbled 
upon the much-prized Ut. Re. ML Fa. Sol. La. a short men- 
tion of which he makes in a single passage in one of his 
later treatises, but without any further explanation, and 
which he used rather as a means of help for pupils of 
slow comprehension, and as a kind of example, than for 
anything else, just as if other syllables might not have 
answered as well. Sir John Hawkins in his History of 
Music. Vol. III. gives the following ingenious explanation 
of the discovery of the hexachord. "The scale as it stood 
a in Guido's time, was not adapted for the reception of 6 
"syllables, and therefore the application which he made of 
"them does necessarily imply some previous improvement 
"of the scale, either actually made by him, or w r hich he 
"had that time under consideration. It is pretty certain 
"that this improvement could be no other than the con- 
certing the ancient tetrachords into hexachords, which to 
"begin with the tetrachord Hypaton, he effected in this 
"manner. That tetrachord was terminated in the grave or 
"deep sound, by Hypate Hypaton or □ ; for though the 
"Proslambanomenos A, carried the system a tone lower, it 
"was always considered , as its name imports , acquisitus, 
"supernumerary or redundant, the addition therefore of a 
"tone below A , immediately converted the Tetrachord 
u Hypaton into a Hexachord, and drove the semitone into 
"a position which divided the Hexachord into two equal 
"parts. This additional Tone he called r, gamma" And 
as it corresponded with the first syllable Ut, the scale con- 
structed thereon was called Gamma Ut or Gamut a name 
which it retains to this day. 

This position of the half-tone between the 3 d and 4 th 
degree is also verified in the scale or hexachord from 
T to G to e, g to ee : F to d, and / to dd, except 
that in these two latter hexachords, the "6" and u bb" 


must be understood to be "b flat," and not u b natural," 
in order to avoid the Tritonus or augmented fourth. 

As all these hexachords are alike, differing only in 
pitch, the use of the six syllables was not confined as 
at present to the scale commencing with c, but was 
extended to all the others , the semitone occurring be- 
tween the third and fourth syllable, always being found 
in any of the hexachords between the third and fourth 
degrees. The syllables had therefore to be shifted at 
each variation of the melodic modulation, and this was 
called mutation. 1 ) A Table of the hexachords with the 
mutations or shifting s, was made out by Ugolinus, which 
we here subjoin 


la sol 
sol fa 
fa gmi 
la mi re 
sol re ut 
fa ut 
la mi 
sol re 
fa ut 
fa jjmi 

2 ) The solmization of Plain-Chant is the same as that employed 
in modern music, and popularised by the Tonic Sol-Fa system. This 
latter system may be used with advantage in the study of the inter- 
vals, as Guido's system of mutations is practically the same as the 


Mi-Fa meant everywhere the position of the half- 
note, or more properly the stibsemitonium modi, which 
received at every such place the syllables Mi-Fa. 

The three Hexachords beginning with /', G, g, are 
called Hexachorda dura, (hard), on account of the fc); that 
is b durum occurring in it ; the two beginning with C 
and c are called Hexachorda naturalia, (natural), because 
neither a b or \ occurs in them; and the two beginning 
with F and f are called Hexachorda mollia. because of 
the presence in both of the b molle or rotundum. From 
these tables also were derived special names for the 
notes of the scale according to their situation. For in- 
stance, if you wished to designate F in the first sep- 
tenary; by reading across the page you would call it 
F fa ut; if you meant d, you would call it d la sol re, 
or c, c sol fa ut &c. Again G has the syllable sol in 
the natural hexachord, re in the soft or molle hexachord, 
and ut in the hexachord durum : b natural can be only 
called mi, and b flat fa. These three hexachords may 
be dove-tailed into one another in the following manner. 

ut, re, mi, fa, sol, la. 
T, A, h, C, D, E. 

tit, re, mi, fa, sol, la. 
C, D, E, F, G, a. 

ut, re, mi, fa, sol, la. 
F, G, a, b, c, d etc. 

If the compass of any Hexachord were exceeded, 
and another commenced, the tones belonging to the new 
Hexachord must be so designated that the syllables mi fa 
may coincide with the position of the semitone, thus: 

f g a^b c d e^f, g a bi? c d e fjt g 
ut re mi fa (sol) ut re mi fa (sol) 

vt re mi fa, ut re mi fa. 

Tonic Sol-Fa modulator. See "The Standard Course of Lessons on 
the Tonic Sol-Fa method" by John Curtven. 


In this system of Mutation consisted the peculiar 
use of the so-called Guidonian hand. 

Guido is supposed to have taught his pupils to find 
and name the tones upon the bones of the hand, and 
it was regarded at the time as a wonderful discovery, 
that the Creator should have given to man exactly the 
same number of members in the hand as there were 
tones in the scale, according to the system of the great 
master viz. nineteen. The twentieth tone *T was only 
added at a later period by Guido's pupils, in order to 
complete a seventh hexachord, and not being able to 
find a place for it on the hand, they fixed it over the top 
of the second finger whose highest member is called d. 

Observation. This perhaps may be the proper place 
to remark on the origin of our sign \ or natural. In a 
note found in the Appendix to Kiesewetter's work "Die 
Gesehichte der Musik," we find the following information 
"on the origin of the German H, as name for the second 
note of the alphabetical series." (It must be remembered 
that in Germany b when natural is always indicated by 
the letter h pronounced hah) "The B has also with the Ger- 
"mans as many significations and employments as with the 
"English, with the exception only that we never under- 
stand it to be H (English B natural or French Si). It 
"appears that we were in some perplexity with regard to 
"the appellation of the seventh note of the scale, and that 
"the difference of the already existing signs t? and \ oc- 
casioned the introduction of the H, because the sign in 
"itself could be taken for H by drawing the stroke down- 
wards from the right side, in the same way that out of 
"k we procure an h by the prolongation of the stroke to 
"the right. It may be sufficient in this place, simply to 
"remark that the name of the second note of the scale 
"was twofold: one with a t 7 called B rotundum, round and 
"one with a b or h called B quadratum, squared which 
"last agrees with the H of the Germans, the B natural 
"of the English and the Si of the French." 


For a long time this difficult and complicated Gui- 
donian Solmisation or Solfisation, (according to Tinctoris) 
continued in use, until with the extension of the Tone- 
system below Gamma, and above ee, 1 ) and the discov- 
ery of harmony, a new syllable Si was added 2 ) to de- 
signate the seventh Tone of the succession. This syllable 
when it expressed B natural was written Si, when 
B flat, Sa . or Za ; and so the • octave system of St. 
Gregory was re-established , and Mutations abandoned. 
Later still the Italians substituted Do for TJt for euphony 
sake ; but either syllable may be used. In Germany the 
TJt is retained. 

II. All possible musical sounds therefore, may be re- 
duced to, and classed under, seven principal or foundation 
sounds. These seven sounds may be repeated ascending 
or descending in regular alphabetical order, thus : 
iABCDEFG abcdefg aa etc. 
j la si Do re mi fa sol la si Do re mi fa sol la etc. 
'i. II. III. IV. V. VI. VII. I. II. III. IV. V. VI. VII. I. etc. 
each octave forming what is called a scale, (from scala, 
a ladder). Of these seven sounds, five are whole tones, 
and two are semi-tones: and every scale proceeding in 
this regular manner is called diatonic, 8 ) that is "by 

From B to C, (Si- Do), and from JE to F {mi-fa) the 
distance or span is not so great, as from C to D, (Do-Be). 

') This addition was made by Guillaume Du Fay, a singer in the 
Papal Chapel in 1380. He died in 1432, and because" of this extension 
of the scale and his masterly compositions, was reputed one of the 
first of musicians of his time. 

2 ) Some attribute the adoption of this syllable to Le Maire in 
1()20. Janssen refers it to Henry Van de Putte (Erycius Puteanus) in 
the 17 th century. 

3 ) Tovog (from leiveiv, to span). Every scale was called (JWovo? 
by the Greeks, which from its commencing note to the octave counted 
five whole tones, and two half-tones. 


Mi-Fa therefore and Si-Bo are called natural (also 
major) half-tones or semitones. Do-Be. Be-Mi, 
Fa-Sol, Sol-La, La- Si are five whole tones. 

Observation. These five whole tones may, as in 
modern music, be divided into semitones by means of the 
so called musical accidents; — the diesis or sharp 
represented thus #; and the flat thus t\ The diesis or 
sharp raises the note to which it is prefixed, a (minor) 
half-tone, and the note is then called c sharp. The ^ bimol 
or flat lowers the note a {minor) half-tone, and it is then 
called D flat, supposing 1) to be the note affected. These 
subdivisions of the scale are called chromatic, they are 
12 in number, and a scale proceeding through all of them 
is called a chromatic scale. 

Again, every whole tone is divisible into a major and 
minor semitone. The semitone was called by Plato Li mm a, 1 ) 
because imperfect, and not dividing the tone into two equal 
parts; one part being greater than the other and called 
apotome or major semitone, the remaining part diesis 
or minor semitone. The whole tone is made up of 9 
commas, of which 5 are found in apotome and 4 in 
diesis. Thus from C to D we have c-c sharp, — diesis 
or minor semitone, and c sharp — D, — apotome or 
major semitone. From G to F descending we have G-G 
flat, minor semitone, G flat — F apotome, or major 
semitone. This mathematically exact progression consti- 
tutes the enharmonic scale'; but practically in modern 
music it exists only in name; as all semitones whether 
affected by flats, sharps or naturals are considered equal 
intervals. This practice may perhaps be traced to the re- 
cently extended use of keyed instruments, organ, piano- 
forte or harmonium; in which, in order to facilitate mo- 
dulation, a system of tuning is adopted, whereby the odd 
commas of the enharmonic progression , are distributed 
equally over the entire scale; and hence it is called the 

') "Semitonium a Platone Limma vocatum eo quod non sit plenus 
tonus sed imperfectus, necme dimidium toni, non enim in duas aequas 
partes dividi potest, sed inaequales tautum, quarum alter semitonium 
majus seu apotome, alter semitonium minus seu diesis, quae ab 
apotome superatur comraate." Cottonius apud Gerbert, II. 238. 


equal temperament system. Stringed instruments however, 
such as the violin, are tuned with mathematical precision, 
and for this reason the violin is preferred for teaching 

Plain-Chant admits the diatonic or natural semitone, 
(mi-fa, si-do), and the limma or chromatic semitone in the 
single case of the interval from La to Sa or Za; but al- 
together excludes the diesis, and knows nothing of the 
enharmonic scale. The sign x (St. Andrew's cross) raises 
the note two minor semitones 8 A>, so that x F and g make 
almost the same impression on the ear; in like manner 
(double flat) lowers the note 4 A> of a whole tone, e. g. 
w E = D. The sign \ (B quadratum) or natural removes 
the effect of the single \ or t*, and restores the note to its 
natural condition. 


"The sounds of the scale are connected in six dif- 
ferent ways, viz: by a tone, a semitone, a major 
"third, a minor third, a fourth and a fifth." 1 ) 

Junguntur ad se invicem sex modis, tono, semitonio, 
ditono, semiditono, diatessaron, diapente. Non aliter quam 
his sex modis voces jimctce concordant vel moventiir. So 
that to learn Gregorian Chant the student need only devote 
his attention to these six simple progressions. "To these 
"consonances two other species of progression are super- 
added by some singers, viz, the diapente with a semi- 
u tone, as from E to c (a minor sixth), and diapente 
"with a tone, as from C to a (a major sixth). But as 
"these and the octave are rarely met with, I have not 
"reckoned them." 2 ) 

') Ita. Guido. Hucbald. Odo. Cottonias. See Article of Fr. Utto 
Kornmuller "Die Compositionslehre vom 10. bis 13. Jahrhunderi" in 
"Monatshefte fur Musikgeschichte" 4th year 1872. — 2 ) Ibid. 



An Interval is the distance / in acuteness or gravity, 
between one sound and another. 

A single sound, is not an interval, it is unison; 1 ) 
an interval can only exist when two different sounds are 

The intervals are named from the number of letters 
which they include. Thus from A to B (including two 
letters) is called a second] from A to C (including three 
letters A B C) a third; from A to D a fourth and so 
on, and the intervals may be counted ascending or de- 
scending. The intervals used in Gregorian Chant are 
as follows. 

1 st . A Second. The distance from any given sound 
to the next adjoining, above or below, is called the in- 
terval of a second; as from A to B; — B to C or 
descending; A to G; — G to F. There are two kinds 
of second; — the major second, comprising a full tone, 
as from C to B — (Bo-Be) ; and the minor second, 
where the natural diatonic semitone occurs as from F 
to F— (Mi-Fa) or B\ to C, — (Si-Bo); or A to 

Observation. The word Tone in Church music, has 
many significations. In the original Greek (ueiveiv) the 
word denotes tension, stretching, spanning or bracing, and 
in this sense it is often used by physicians, as descriptive 
of medicinal effects. But as a string when stretched is 
easily made to sound, and the more it is stretched the 
higher the sound it gives, so the word tone, tovog, was 
naturally taken to signify sound. In this sense we have 
been using it up to the present, when speaking of the 
tones or sounds of the scale. But it has another mean- 
ing, and expresses not only sounds, but the distance or 

') Unisonus quasi ufius sonus;.. . non est modus neque cantus, 
quia cantus est inflexio vocis, i.e. omnis cantus inflectit vocem variat 
sonum. Ibid. 


interval between sounds. In this latter sense we use it 
in the present chapter; so that Tones and Semitones, 
when spoken of as Intervals, are not sounds, but the 
distance between sounds; just as a mile, is not a place, 
but the distance between two places. "Tonus fortem 
sonum reddit respectu semitonii; et est spatii legitima mag- 
nitudo a sotio in sonum ratione 8:9 i.e. epog dousP Jerome 
of Moravia, see Coussemaker. vol. 1. pag. 27. 

2 nd . A Third. The distance from any sound to the 
third degree from it is an interval of a third; as: 
A-C : B-D : : G-F : F-D. 

There are tw T o kinds of thirds; major and minor. 
A major third includes two whole tones as: 
G-F (Do-mi); F-a (Fa-La); or descending B-G (Si-Sol). 

A minor third includes one tone and a semitone, as: 
G-bflat (Sol-Za); A-C (La-Bo) D-F (Re-Fa) B-JD (Si-Be). 

Anciently this twofold interval was called respectively 
Di tonus and Semiclitonus. 1 ) Too much importance 
cannot be attached to the necessity of learning this in- 
terval correctly, as it occurs most frequently, and once 
a facility is acquired in striking with accuracy major and 
minor thirds , the reading of Gregorian music presents 
no difficulty. 

3 d . A Fourth. The interval which includes two 
tones and a semitone is called a fourth ; thus Do -Fa, 
(C-F) i. e. tone, tone, and semitone; or La-Re, (A-D) 
i. e. tone, semitone, tone; or Si-Mi (Bij-E) i. e. semi- 
tone, tone, tone. Its ancient Grecian name was Dia- 
tessaron. The interval known in modern music as the 
augmented fourth, including three full tones, as from 
Fa to Si (F to b natural) and called the Tritone, is not 

') "D it onus duos tonos in se continet. Semiditonus vocatur, 
quod non sit plenus ditonus; hujus sunt species duce; una tono et semi- 
tonio, altera semitonio et tono constans, vel in metrica similitudine semi- 
ditonus iambicus — ) et trochaicus (— Engelbert apud Gerbert. 



allowed in Gregorian ; and it is to obviate this that the 
b flat is introduced; — the only accidental admitted in 
Plain-Chant. "Tritonus, constans tribus continuis tonis, 
diatessaron non reputatur" Guido. 

4 th . The Fifth, (ancient name Dia pent e) includes 
three full tones and a semitone; as: D-a (Re-La) i.e. 
tone, semitone, tone, tone; or E-b!^ (Mi-Si) semitone, 
tone, tone, tone; or F-c (Fa -Do) tone, tone, tone, semi- 
tone; or G-d (Sol-Re) tone, tone, semitone, tone. This 
interval is called the perfect fifth; to distinguish it 
from what is known in modern music as the diminished 
or false fifth; consisting of two tones and two semi- 
tones, e. g. htj-f (Si-Fa). This is but the inversion of 
the objectionable tritone, and consequently the b must 
be lowered a semitone and so made to constitute a per- 
fect fifth. 1 ) 

5 th . The Octave (Diapason) includes five whole 
tones and two semitones; which may be distributed in 
seven different ways according to the letter with which 
it is commenced. This will be. seen more clearly, when 
we come to speak of the modes. 

Observation. The octave, like the Major and Minor 
Sixth is seldom if ever encountered in Plain- Chant. "Hie 
canendi modus" writes the Cistercian Engelbert in the 13 t]l 
century, "rarissime in captu usitatus reperitur" Hucbald 
tells us that the octave received the name diapason, "de 
omnibus" "through all" because anciently the greatest num- 
ber of strings on the lyre was eight. 

4 ) "B — F, b% — f, quae etsi 5 voces includunt, ab omnibus tamen 
diapente speciebus secluduntur ; ista anomala species (minus diapente) 
duobus tonis, tottdemque semitoniis completur , qua 2 semitonia juncta 
(minora) non faciunt integrum tonum, sicque ad completionem diapente 
comma cum semitonio deeritP Guido. Engelbert Hucbald etc. Apud 




I. Notes are signs which by their shape indicate 
the duration of a sound, and by their position the 
names of the sounds and their respective gravity, or 

1 st . Shape. Three shapes of notes are employed 
in Gregorian music ; a) * J , longa nota (long note) ; 
b) a brevis (short note). Its time value is estimated by 
the syllable over which it is placed, and approaches 
sometimes the longa, sometimes the semibrevis. c) The 
semibrevis ♦, about half the duration of the brevis. 1 ) 

In Gregorian however there is no such thing as strict 
time. The music is entirely subordinated to the words. 

2 nd . Position. If we consider for a moment the 
difficulty of fixing on paper the height or depth of a 
sound, the invention of means by which this could be 
effected and properly represented without fear of mistake, 
may be well regarded as a most ingenious contrivance. 

*) In the Graduate Bomanum, — (Mediccean edition) the brevis is 
placed over short syllables whenever they should be sung to one note; 

e. g. ^g^^fc instead =0=£*££=. The semi- 

o- ra-ti- 6-nem o- ra- ti- 6-nem. 

brevis is used as an embellishment or passing note, in groups of 

notes or neumas descending, e. g. 1" j§" . tj-ifr-i+N - H^ iij g , Jacovacci 

De - - um. 

in 11 Palestrina, No. 3. anno 2 do says "Le note di passagio furono 
usate nei buoni Corali soltanto discendenti, e senza tornare indietro; 
discendenti , perche accelerando ii canto, la voce si ahbandona e ab- 
bandonandosi , le riesce piu facile il discendere che il salire; senza 
tornare indietro, perche appunto sono note di passagio, e chi passa 
procede da un punto all altro direttamente, e chi torna indietro, prima 
d'arrivare ad un punto determinato, non passa." 


Previous to Guido's time the Neumce or Notts Romance 
were simply written over the text, no lines or spaces 
were in use, and it was left to the judgment or taste 
of each teacher to interpret them in his own fashion. 
See Introduction. Shortly before Guido two lines were 
introduced, one coloured yellow to denote c, the other 
coloured red to denote F. Guido added two more lines, 
and so established the four line system, which prevails 
in Gregorian to the present day. He placed the notes on 
the lines, and between the spaces, and over and under 
the four lines, and in this way he fixed the name and 
position of each note of the Scale. If in the following 
example we call the first note c, the names of the other 
notes placed in regular succession on the lines and 
spaces can be given without difficulty. 


ut re mi fa sol la si ut 

In case the melody should extend higher or lower 
than what may be contained within the four lines and 
spaces, then recourse is had to what are called ledger 
lines; thus ^ a la_ ± 

* d re 

The lines are counted upwards, likewise the spaces. 

The traditional character of the old notation is so 
worthy of respect, and its employment in the liturgical 
books has been so steadfastly maintained for centuries, 
that to change it into modern notation seems neither 
necessary, useful, nor advisable. Four lines and three spe- 
cies of notes are amply sufficient . Frequently it has been 
proposed and in some places *) the proposal has been 

') ''Recueil de Messes et d'autres pieces de Chant, nouvelle edition 
redigee et mise en notation musicale par l'abbe Gaillard Choriste de 


acted upon, to convert the Gregorian into modern no- 
tation, and so facilitate its being taught to the masses ; 
but it should be remembered that the ^ ^ and # of 
modern notation, are tied down to a fixed measured time, 
which is contrary to the very essence of Gregorian, de- 
manding as it does free rythmical declamation, and where 
as Witt says: "the Text is the master, the notes the 
slaves"; 2 ) and again it has been proved by experience 
that singers when exercised on four line music, acquire 
more speedily a correct knowledge of the intervals, than 
when using five ; and lastly in groupings of several notes 
ascending or descending, the united smooth rendering 
thereof is greatly facilitated. 

Observation. A. Should a number of notes be clo- 
sely bound together and attached to the same syllable, thus, 
Ejj^itf=, they are then called notae ligatae (bound notes) 

and are to be sung quickly but smoothly. We also meet 

with notes of this shape -£N^=z£*— . They are called notae 

obliquae (oblique notes), also plica (transverse notes). They 
are an abbreviated form of writing two notes, one being 
on the line or space where the oblique note commences 
and the other where it terminates: thus, in the example 

given the oblique notes are instead of The 

Folio Medicsean edition of the Gradual 1614, employs the 
plica only descending, and never for a greater interval 
than a third. The first note of the ligature is accented. 
The new official Ratisbon edition employs it in precisely 
the same way. 

Observation. B. The Neumas have been mentioned 
as the notation in use previous to the invention and adop- 
tion of the note system just explained. Any dissertation 
on the lYeuma writing would he more of historical than 
practical value , and archaeology has vet a great deal 

la Cathedrale d'Annecy publiee par les soins de M. le Chanoine Poncet 
Annecy 1851. 

') Fliegende Bliitter. October 1^75. 


to do, before it can throw every necessary light on this 
antiquated and obscure note system. The Neumce or Neu- 
mata consisted of points, little hooks, strokes and flourishes, 
in different shapes and directions ; these represented to the 
singer by their position the height of the tone, and by 
their shape the inflexion. See example given in Introduc- 
tion, page 8. The ambiguity of them as note signs cannot 
be questioned for a moment. However the binding or 
grouping of notes in the neuma system, was established 
according to certain fundamental forms, which have sur- 
vived the use of the little hooks and flourishes themselves 
and are still employed. When a syllable is noted with 
virga, it receives an Accent (te), and is sustained longer 
than a syllable noted with the * punctum (in); \ is called 
clivis, the first note accented (pater). Climacus is a name 
given to note groupings such as the following : % (Dominus) 
or : B X a is called scandicus, and tor cuius. Several 
other signs were in use for artistically trained singers ; 
such as may be heard at present in the Papal Chapel 
when the Solo voices adopt certain embellishments and 
mannerisms, intoning the Introit or the Antiphons. These 
note-groupings are #8 it were the elements of Gregorian 
song, as words are the elements of speech, and on their 
equitable distribution depends the beauty of the melody, 
as the charm of speech depends upon the prudent use of 
long and short words. 

The word neuma has yet another signification from its 
greek root nvev^a a breath or breathing , and indicates a 
grouping of several notes, as many as can be sung together 
in one breath, and therefore set to one syllable or one 
vowel; or as Joannes Tinctoris remarks "Neuma is a song 
or chant which hangs on to the end of a word, without a 
word." Such Neumas are constantly met in the Graduals 
with their Alleluias, the neuma been sung to the final vowel 
a of the Alleluia, as it were in token of highest jubilee 
approaching to a shout, and hence they are also called 
Jubilationes. 1 ) The Xeumse were very lengthened in some 
of the old Choral books. A Council heid at Reims in 1564 

l ) "Jubilus sonus quidem est significans cor parturire quod dicere 
non potest." (St. Augustine in Psal. xxxii.) 


forbade the undue lengthening of the neumce and in the 
Medicaean edition {reprinted in Ratisbon) they were much 
abbreviated. Strange, that the Reims' and Cambrai Gradual, 
published by Lecoffre of Paris, should be the only one to 
reestablish them in all their pristine prolixity. 

II. Cfefs. The lines of themselves do not fix im- 
movably the positions of the several notes of the scale, 
nor does the stave of four (or even five) lines, comprise 
the whole compass of the human voice. Wherefore some 
conventional sign becomes necessary to determine in each 
melody the position of the semitones of the diatonic 
scale, for these being once determined, it is easy to find 
the rest. This conventional sign is called a Clef, (from 
the Latin word clavis or French word clef, a hey,) be- 
cause fixing the position of the semitones in a piece, it 
discloses and expounds the whole piece. 

Previous to Guido, as has been already stated, there 
were in use two lines, on, between, under, and over which 
the several notes of the scale were placed. One was 
coloured red, and denoted F, for the grave hexachord, 
that is to say all Neumce written on that line were to 
be considered F or fa; the other yellow, or sometimes 
green, denoting c, for the acute hexachord. These two 
lines served all the purpose of clefs, for every one could 
understand that in the interstice between them, were to 
be found the notes a, b; although these three notes in 
relation to one another had no fixed position, but had 
to be guessed from the peculiar formation of the cor- 
responding neuma. Later on they placed the letters F 
and C at the beginning of these lines and so rendered 
the different colouring unnecessary. When Guido how- 
ever added two more lines he placed the neumce both 
on the lines and in the spaces, retaining the use of the 
alphabetical letters F and C on the two original lines, 
in order to fix the position of the semitones. 


Subsequently when the square black notes, displaced 
the points or dots hitherto in use, the clef letters F and 
C assumed a conformation or shape somewhat analogous 
to the notes employed, and F was represented by the 
sign p t ; and C by the sign jj. However as the system 
of Mutations still prevailed, and the introduction of the 
b molle constantly changed the names of the notes (See 
Chap. 1 st ) ; so to the figure 1 denoting F , they added 
the C sign fc, and thus obtained the compound sign 
which continued to denote F or F fa tit, in the nomen- 
clature of the Mutation system. The C sign remained 
unaltered (in fact it is only a squared formation of the 
letter C). So that we have in Gregorian or Plain-Chant, 
two clefs, and only two: 

the C or Do clef = |S, 

the F or Fa clef = ijj. 
The Bo Clef may be placed on any line; the Fa Clef 
is usually on the 2 nd , 3 d or 4 th line. 

C or Do clef. F or Fa clef. 

All notes placed on the line where the Bo clef is 
found are called Bo; and where the Fa clef, Fa e. g. 
cGeh a d cfaeg 


These Clefs being movable from line to line, do 
not indicate the pitch, but only the position of the semi- 
tones. Even in the course of a melody they often change 
position and one is substituted for the other, as in the 
Grad. Rom. pag. 21*. 


^zzjdbfr-B^d^fprls^JgzrMzr. or pag. 172: 
mi-se-re-re no-bis. Qui tol - lis etc. 

mi -hi Si quis etc 

This shifting and changing of the Clefs, is practised, 
in order to keep the melody within the compass of the 
four line stave, and obviate the necessity of employing 
ledger lines , which are rarely met with in Gregorian. 
In these sudden changes of Clef it will be enough to 
remember that Fa and Do both indicate the position of 
their respective neighbouring semitones Mi and Si, and 
both are the uppermost note of exactly similar tetrachords, 
Fa. Mi, Re, Bo, when sung being in every respect simi- 
lar to Do, Si-La, Sol. The little sign like a note *, (also 

written - — * v ) found at the end of lines, and before 

a change of clef, if such occur in the middle of a line, 
is used to indicate the succeeding note ; and is therefore 
called a custos, watchman, guide or direct. 

To sum up the substance of these two chapters, the 
primary elements of Plain-Chant and its system of no- 
tation may be thus briefly enumerated: 

a) A Diatonic octave Scale, comprising five tones 
and two semitones. 

b) Notes indicating the sounds of the scale, shaped 
in three different ways * longa; * brevis; ♦ semibrevis 
to express duration; and placed one above the other on 
a stave of four lines (both on lines and in the spaces) 
to determine their exact acuteness or gravity. 

c) Two clefs Fa and Do to fix the position of the 
semitones of the scale; and 

d) a Guide employed at the end of a line, or be- 
fore a change of Clef to indicate the next succeeding note. 



I. Rhythm, in general (yvfr^og from qscj to flow) 
means a smooth flowing progression, varied and main- 
tained according to certain determined divisions of Time. 
It is measure; even-measure as well as (mathemat-. 
ically) equal-measure. Rhythm can be imagined with- 
out words, and may be indicated by notes or tones, one 
sustained longer than the other, or sounded with varying 
force and emphasis; and this is musical rhythm. The 
natural fondness for rhythm, in the human mind, must 
be referred to its natural love of order, harmony, and 
symmetry. We trace it in the regular pulsations of the 
nerves, 1 ) as well as in the ever varying, but regular 
waves of emotion that disclose the ceaseless activity of 
the soul. Even in children, the sense of rhythm is de- 
veloped earlier than that of melody, and both Poetry 
and Prose are indebted to it for a large share of their 
fascinating power. In Music, Rhythm is a necessity. 

How strange it is, that in the face of this law of 
nature all idea of rhythmical movement in Gregorian 
chant should be so generally lost sight of. Of all forms 
of Music, no one so entirely depends upon rhythm for 
its legitimate effect as Gregorian. And yet in most of the 
Grammars and Manuals of Plain-Chant in use amongst 
us, whilst we have chapters explanatory of the Notes, 
and Intervals and Clefs and Tones &c, scarcely a line 
is to be found on rhythm. This deficiency may perhaps 
to some extent account for the bad and ineffective rend- 

') "Universim igitur rhythmus tribiis hisce sensibus percipitur. 
Visu, ut in saltatione; Aud'itu, ut in cantu; Tactu, ut arteriarum 
pulsus. At qui in Musica consideratur, a duobus ; visu nimirum et au- 
ditu/' Aristides Quintilianus lib. X. de Musica, apud Martini. 


ering of Plain-Chant that so often offends our ears, and 
gives ground for the charge so often made against it, 
that it is devoid of Melody, a barbarism adapted for 
ruder ages but intolerable in the present advanced state 
of .musical science. 

The rhythm of poetry is susceptible of the same 
exact divisions of time , as the rhythm of dancing and 
music; but rhetorical rhythm is satisfied with a pleas- 
ing cadence of syllables — an approximation to the rhythm 
of verse , particularly at the beginning and the end of 
periods. Whether it be poetry or prose that we are 
called upon to sing in the rotes of St. Gregory, we shall 
find the rhythm or swing of the melody, closely bound 
up with the euphony of the language to which it is 
wedded ; the musical melodies are as it were constructed 
on the melody of the language itself, — the language 
being simply clothed in musical sounds ; so that the fun- 
damental rule for understanding Gregorian melody and 
singing it effectively is: — "Sing the words with 

notes, as you would speak them without notes." 

k< Good singing is good accentuation" wrote Adam of Fulda, 
as we read in Gerbert, "De cantu et Musica sacra" 

One of the first requisites therefore for good sing- 
ing of Gregorian Chant, is a knowledge of the Latin 
tongue, of its peculiarities, its prosody, its scansion; 1 ) 
in a word Gregorian Chant demands "faultless, clear, 
scientific pronunciation." For we again assert that 
the Ritual Song is not a monotonous composition, con- 
sisting of slow notes of equal length, to be drawled out 
in a hard unappreciative manner, tiresome to the voice 

') A fixed measure and determined number of alternating long and 
short syllables is called Metre. The science which teaches the reltiive 
length of syllables, and correct accentuation is Prosody. The enumera- 
tion of the metrical syllables, their abbreviation (cesura), punctuation 
etc. is Scansion. 


of the singer, and far more tiresome to the ear of the 
listener. It abounds with melodies infinitely varied in 
their rhythm, and peculiarly adapted to give increased 
force and emphasis to the words and sentiments of the 
Liturgy. The length and emphasis proper for each note 
therefore, whether it be the nota longa or brevis, can 
only be determined by a consideration of the meaning 
of the words, and the character of the musical phrase 
of which it forms a part. So that the nota longa only 
expresses longer duration than the brevis, because coup- 
led with a syllable demanding emphasis, and being 
at the same time a leading note of the melody, or 
of the scale on which the melody is based. This co- 
incidence of the verbal accent with the musical ictus, 
and a distribution of notes so that they run easily 
with the words, constitutes good rhythmical progression. 
Therefore, when a syllable is thus rendered prominent 
by an intensified and emphatic effort of the voice it is 
said to be accented. This accent has a great duty 
to perform in Gregorian. Through the proper use of it, 
the main features of the melody are distinguished from 
the less important, and words or syllables of consequence 
are conspicuously brought to the front. 

Here it must be borne in mind that it is not the 
number of notes placed over a syllable, that makes the 
syllable long or short or accented, but rather their 
stronger or weaker intonation. Hence we often find in 
such words as JDominus , quite a group of notes over 
the short syllable mi, and but one or two perhaps over 
the accented syllable Bo. In this and similar instances 
the group of notes over the short syllable, should be 
sung quickly but smoothly and with a thesis 1 ) or depres- 

') Arsis and Thesis. Latine elevatio and depressio; an elevation or 
depression of the voice in marking the accented and unaccented syl- 
lables. Also the rise and fall of the melodic movement. 


sion of the voice; while the single note (if there be but 
one) over the syllable Bo should be delivered with em- 
phasis and power. Accent therefore is not the relative 
duration of a note, "it is not even the strength of it," 
says Dr. Witt, 2 ) "but it is a spiritualizing of the voice, 
a veritable surrendering of the whole power of the soul 
to a sound which from the soul must receive its pecu- 
liar character and vitality." In consequence of this free- 
dom of- rhythm in Gregorian Chant, the dispositions of 
the singer are at once made manifest, his devotion or 
distraction, his earnestness or indifference. Hence it has 
been said with truth. "To sing Gregorian one must 
have a musical ear, a technical knowledge of it, and fair 
appreciation of it; to sing it well he must understand 
the Liturgy and the Latin language; to sing it per- 
fectly, he must be holy." (Flieg. Blatter Sept. 1875.) 
The rules which the author of a Choral und Liturgie" 
lays down appear so important that a few of them may 
be briefly enumerated here. 1 st . "In Gregorian Chant 
there are no long and short syllables in the sense of 
Prosody, but only accented and unaccented." — 
2 nd . "The notes have no determined Time-value, and 
never serve to indicate the duration of the sound, but 
only to guide the modulation of the voice." From 
these two rules we may gather how faulty is that method 
of singing which measures out to each note and syllable 
equal value {Isotony). The ear is offended Avith the speaker 
t who would recite the syllables and words of his speech 
with equal speed or sluggishness, and experience proves 
that nothing is so tiresome to listen to as monotonous, 
isotonous chant. 

Observation. 1st. A few examples of the Accent 
in Plain-Chant may serve to illustrate the preceeding par- 

*) "Fliegende Blatter." Oct. 1875. 


agraph. In some editions of the Vesperal we find the Hymn 
of the Holy Ghost notated and sung as follows: 

A A 

T=t= itV . 

:— «: 

Ye - ni ere - a - tor spi - ri - tus. 

Let us contrast this with the correct version of the 
"Vesperale Romanum" Ratisbon 1875 Page 212, and the 
ictus or musical accent indicated by the mark a correctly 

A A 

=p— p=z=M=:ii N _Wrz*M==^z==zzizz:3=: 

Ye - ni ere - a - tor spi - ri - tus. 

Again in the edition of the Officium et Missa Defun- 
ctorum generally used throughout Ireland (i Dublinii Ricardi 
Coyne MDCCCXLI" we find the first verse of the Dies 
Irae thus 

Di-es i-rae Di-es il -la sol -vet sae-clum in 

fa-vil-la Tes-te Da-vid cum Sy-bil-la. 

In the Katisbon "Graduate" Page 48* 8™ edition, and 
in the "Exequiale Romanum" of the same publishers we 
find the accents placed thus 

Di-es i-rae Di-es il-la Sol -vet sae-clum in fa-vil-la 


4=M= S= 


Tes-te Da-vid cum Sy-bil-la. 

. In the 1 st we have unmistakeable traces of Gallican 
origin from the accent being placed on the final syllables, 
as the French do to the present day; while in the latter 
the requirements and nature of the language are respected. 
This matter will be better and more fully illustrated when 
we come to treat of the Practice of Plain- Chant. 


Observation. 2 nd . Hitherto we have spoken of rhythm 
as even measure, but it may also be considered as mathe- 
matically equal measure. A certain note of fixed {time) 
value is taken as a standard of unity , which may be di- 
vided and subdivided ; and in all those divisions and sub- 
divisions the value of this unit must be fully expressed. 
These time-sections are now indicated by short perpen- 
dicular lines drawn across the stave called Bars. This is 
the system of Time in modern music. The Harmonists of 
the middle ages used no bars (i. e. perpendicular lines) but 
left the duration of the notes to be determined by the 
united effect of the voices and free rhythm of the text. 
When measured music J ) came into use, it at once appeared 
how unreasonable and unscientific it would be to tie down 
the free rhythm of Plain-Chant in the fetters of strictly 
measured Time Bars. So that in Gregorian we have no 
measured time and no Bars, in the modern sense. 

II Rhythmical progression essentially requires Pau- 
ses, and both the physical and mental powers of the singer 
demand time to gather fresh strength, (to take breath). 

In even measured Rhythm such as we have in 
Plain-Chant, the Pauses are partly left to the feeling 
or just discretion of the singer, (never to caprice or 
necessity, from want of breath); but the meaning of the 
phrase should never be altered by the Pauses, nor the 
word so broken up that it becomes difficult to the hearer 
to join together its constituent syllables. Generally speak- 
ing the Pauses or places for taking breath are marked 
in the ritual Books, 2 ) as follows: 1) EE|E is either a 
breathing mark, useful especially in large choirs where 
there are many singers, in order that all may begin and 
end the words together; or it serves to divide the 

') Cantus mensurabilis. Franco of Cologne. 

') The Folio edition of the Grati. Rom. has only the perpendicular 
lines (No. 2) as breathing marks , but it is understood that at every 
punctuation mark in the Text breath should be taken. 



phrase into members and sections. 1 ) 2) This last object 
is more generally attained by the simple perpendicular 
line drawn right across the stave, thus E|r; which also 
marks off the melodic and rhythmical members of a mu- 
sical phrase. This mark is never to be confounded with 
the bar in modern music, there being no measured 
time in Gregorian and consequently no time bars. 2 ) 
3) =^1= This, the double bar, is the sign used to de- 
note the close or termination of the entire phrase or 

In old Choral Books, especially in Manuscripts, after 
each word there is found the =xi semisuspirium, to the 
end that a singer unacquainted with the Latin tongue 
might not in singing run the words into one another. 
It is however superfluous, even in such a supposition to 
be always pausing. Nevertheless, though this sign is no 
longer used, the words, even monosyllables, should be 
audibly sounded distinct from each other. Let the follow- 
ing rule for the Pauses be observed: "According to the 
importance of the word, or the sentiment, or the solem- 
nity of the occasion, or the dignity of the persons present, 
or the place where Gregorian is to be sung, the Pauses 
may be of varied duration; they must always be natural, 
and should never be mathematically timed." Pauses 
are in singing, what the comma, semi-colon, colon and 
full-stop are in reading. When a comma occurs in the 
mediation or ending, it may be disiegarded; while on 
the other hand, when a great many syllables have to 
be sung to one reciting note, and there is no comma, 

') In the Octavo edition of the Grad. Rom. these pauses are more 
than sufficiently indicated. 

2 ) In Introits, and antiphons this sign marks off the portion to 
he intoned (the first word or two). It is only to be treated as a 
breathing mark when the Antiphon is repeated. 


a pause will sometimes have to be made in order to 
take breath. 

Attention to this point, the management of the 
breath, cannot be too much insisted on, because if we 
do not draw breath where we ought, we shall be obliged 
to do so where we ought not, and thus produce ludi- 
crous effects. 


I. The theoretical knowledge absolutely requisite for 
a singer of PJain-Chant is neither very extensive nor 
burthensome, as the preceding chapters testify. 

But the art of singing, or the art of playing 
upon the most exquisite musical instrument that can be 
conceived, the human voice, is not so generally un- 
derstood, or so easily acquired. For it should be known 
"that with the organ of the voice, we may not only 
produce a pleasing tone and melody to charm the ear, 
but more than that, we can coin the musical sounds into 
articulate speech, that may be appreciated by the under- 
standing ; and still more than this , we can throw into 
our performance feeling, that will reach the heart, and 
make others feel as we feel." *) 

To fully acquire the art of singing, and the correct 
management of the voice, a competent master is nec- 
essary, and constant practice of solfeggios &c. However 
a few theoretical rules may be here given, which if 
carefully applied will render material service. 

') Parish Choir. Vol. IT. Page 43. Article "Village Lectures on 



Observation. The human voice may be said to 
belong to that class of musical instruments called reeds, 
in which a current of air is employed to throw a tongue, 
or the edges of a membrane into vibration. Take for 
example a trumpet. 1 ) The reed, or vibrating portion of 
the trumpet, is formed by the lips of the player, which 
are tightly pressed against the mouth-piece of the instru- 
ment, and formed into a narrow slit; through which slit 
the air is blown from the mouth, setting its edges in vi- 
bration in its course. The tube of the trumpet only serves 
to modify and give character to the sounds generated by 
the lips; — and the sound which they produce is raised 
in pitch by narrowing and shortening the aperture between 
them, or by increasing the tension of the edges of the slit. 
Now just such an instrument is the human voice. It con- 
sists of four parts, which we will arrange in the ord*er in 
which they exist, placed one over another ; — thus : 


(a cavity to modify and vary the character of the sounds 
as the tube in the trumpet), 

(whose vibration produces sound), 

© CD P 

cd Hi* 

3 q a> 

CD i-j 
& CD 

Bellows or wind chest 
(to hold air, and force it through the windpipe). 
To commence with the lowermost part. In the wind- 
chest, — commonly called the lungs, we have a provis- 
ion for three things, — viz : first, for holding a good supply 

*) Though we select a trumpet as an example of a reed, we are 
aware that it is not classed amongst reed instruments, but the manner 
ot blowing it is quite similar to the manner in which a reed is set in 


of air, i. e. breath; secondly, for sending it upwards with 
proper force; and thirdly for the chest itself to act as a 
sounding-board to the voice, and make it reverberate 
more loudly. The next part of the apparatus is the wind- 
pipe, or air- tube, a thing of beautiful mechanism, elastic, 
so that it can be made longer or shorter, and furnished 
moreover with a contrivance for increasing or decreasing 
its diameter. Immediately above the windpipe we meet 
the reed, called by anatomists the larynx, or organ of 
the voice. Its framework is composed of five principal 
cartilages, which are capable of being moved on each other 
in various directions by muscles, so as to act upon two 
elastic cords, or little strings of highly elastic tissue, one 
on either side, passing from the front to the back of the 
tube, and enveloped by the membrane which lines it. 

They are called the vocal ligaments, or vocal 
cords and it is only this portion of the larynx, which 
forms the reed, generating the voice. The aperture be- 
tween these little strings, allowing the air to pass from 
the lungs, is called the glottis. It opens into a small 
cavity which serves all the purpose of the mouth piece of 
a trumpet, giving the little strings room to vibrate freely; 
and this cavity is terminated above by another pair of 
cords or strings, not quite so elastic, and more apart from 
each other than the inferior pair. They are called by 
anatomists the false vocal cords, but have no share 
whatever in the production of the voice. 

Now when we are merely breathing quietly , these 
true vocal cords lie back, and do not interrupt the 
current of air that is always passing upwards and down- 
wards between them; but when we begin to speak, and 
still more when we begin to sing, these vocal cords are 
brought near together, so as to narrow the air passage or 
glottis into a slit; they are tightened by the action of the 
surrounding muscles; and the air breathed upwards from 
the lungs, being obstructed by this narrow slit, throws the 
edges of it into vibration, and this vibration we recog- 
nise as the human voice. 

The other portions of the throat and mouth, the uvula, 
the palate, the walls of the mouth, the tongue, the teeth 
and the lips do good service in modifying and improving 


the quality of the tone, and are essential for articulation; 
but the voice itself is produced by the simple but beautiful 
mechanism which we have just attempted to describe. The 
strength or power of a voice depends not only on the 
dimensions or muscular activity of the larynx but much 
more on the easy working of the lungs and breathing 
organs; whilst the cavities of the mouth and nose also 
contribute to its resonance. The acuteness or gravity 
of a voice is regulated by the size of the larynx, which is 
larger and wider in deep voices. The good quality of 
the voice, depends on the symmetrical, well-arched con- 
struction of the organs that serve to produce it; and its 
flexibility on the general healthiness of the larynx and 
elasticity of its muscles. 

1) To sing with power we must have a copious 
supply of air — breath — always ready at hand. The 
chest and the muscles below it should be kept perma- 
nently expanded, and guarded against all weakening in- 
fluences. The drawing in of the breath should be quick, 
the breathing it forth slow and without violence. The 
throat should not be tightely muffled, the head erect, 
not thrown back nor yet bent forward. Constant singing 
in a sitting position injures the voice. 

2) A full, clear metallic tone, depends princi- 
pally on good physical organization, nevertheless, a dull- 
toned voice may be much improved, by a judicious ma- 
nagement of the breath. 

3) The so-called guttural tone, or singing from the 
upper part of the throat, arises from the tongue being 
drawn upwards and backwards ; or from the voice being 
exercised too soon, and too vehemently on the higher 
notes of the scale; in either case, the current of air pro- 
ceeding from the lungs does not pass out freely through 
the opening of the mouth, but is retained in the roof 
or cavities thereof. 

4) In low notes many persons violently press down 
the larynx, so that the air passage, or glottis sensibly 


quivers, and produces what the Germans call Gur gel- 
ton. Facility in low notes depends exclusively on the 
greater diameter of the larynx. No one should try to 
sing them if he cannot do so with ease, nor needlessly 
force the available tones of his voice ; otherwise harsh- 
ness of voice, and serious detriment to its metallic timbre, 
power and firmness, will be the undesirable results. 

5) The closing up of the nostrils gives the voice 
a peculiar twang, called the Nasal sound; although the 
fault , is not that w r e then sing through the nose , but 
that the nasal exit for the voice is closed up. 

6) To open the mouth too widely is another fault. 
On the other hand the mouth should be well open and 
freely open ; just so much as to allow T the index-finger, or 
at most the thumb to fit between the tw r o row r s of teeth. 

7) The use of the head voice (Falsetto) is very 
fatiguing, and if continued for any length of time injures 
the voice organs. The chest voice is the most natural, 
and sufficiently extensive in its compass. 

Observation. The average compass of the voice is 
two octaves, 15 notes, but in different parts of the scale 
in different persons; neither are those 15 notes on any one 
voice equal in quality or power. In the average voices of 
men there is a middle or mean compass, of about 8 notes, 
which come easily, and can be sung and rolled out round 
and clear; above these follow closely the high notes, which 
require a greater effort and more breathing power, and 
sound sharp and shrill; under the middle voice come the 
low notes wiiich are deep and proportionately toneless 
(klanglos), except with deep contralti and bassi profondi. 
In men's voices we often meet with instances, where when 
the voice has been raised to a certain height^ at which it is 
felt that the production of tone requires considerable effort, 
a change suddenly occurs; and they can go on with less 
effort producing a new and higher series of notes, of new 
and peculiar character. This is called falsetto or head 
voice, in contradistinction to the natural chest voice. 


By these appellations however we are not to under- 
stand that one kind of tone is produced in the chest and 
the other in the head. Both kinds are produced by the 
reed; the difference being that in the fuller notes of the 
chest voice, the whole substance which bounds the slit 
vibrates; while it is only the thinnest possible edge that 
•vibrates in the falsetto. These falsetto notes are very un- 
like the chest notes either in power or quality ; if uncul- 
tivated they sound wailingly and effeminate, and it is only 
by constant culture they can be brought to resemble in 
strength or character the other tones of the voice, so that 
the use of it is not to be encouraged. These different stages 
of the compass of average voices are called Registers, 
Chest, Middle, and Falsetto Register respectively; and 
great attention should be paid to the producing of those 
notes where the transition from one register of the voice 
to another occurs, so as to render this transition as easy 
as possible and equalize the voice throughout its entire 

8) The progression of two notes must be so accom- 
plished, that one can be clearly distinguished from the 
other, and jet no gap or break appear between them. 
This is called portando la voce. The immediate pro- 
gression of several notes presupposes a proportionate and 
judicious supply of breath. To begin the progression 
gently, and then with increasing power continue up to 
the natural degree of strength, and on the return or 
descending journey allow the voice gradually to cease 
sounding , strengthens and consolidates the voice , and 
endows it with the desirable facility of singing loud or 
soft, piano or forte on each degree of the natural high 
or low register. 

9) In singing two notes successively (especially if it 
be a distant interval) according to the method so-called 
of "Portamento divoce;" that horribly bad habit of sliding 
through all or most of the intervening tones should be 
carefully avoided. Affectation and vulgar mannerisms are 
easily detected in this method of singing. Good singing 


demands a certain mobility and elasticity of Tone, but 
this is very different from the sliding or howling we 
have just adverted to. 

10) When the voice commences to change or crack, 
(in boys) all attempts at singing must be laid aside for 
at least two years, and then only by degrees, and 
cantiously a few exercises in the new voice may be 
essayed, until the organ of the voice gets strong and 
attains a sufficient degree of firmness. "The old fasioned 
notion that from Soprani come Bass voices , and from 
Alti, Tenors, has already produced a multitude of harsh 
rough Basses, and disagreeable Tenors." *) 

Observation. The voices of boys resemble very near- 
ly those of women, but in males a remarkable change takes 
place at puberty, when the voice is said to crack. The 
change from the shrill treble of the boy, to the fuller and 
rounder tone of the man is sometimes perfected almost 
suddenly; but in most cases it is for sometime in progress, 
wavering between the two extremes, deep and manly during 
quiet enunciation, but when any exertion is used, suddenly 
starting up again to the shrill tones of boyhood. This 
change occurs generally about the 16^ or 17 th year, some- 
times earlier; and many are of opinion that boys so affected 
should abstain from singing for two or more years. Cer- 
tain it is that the greatest precaution should be adopted, 
if the voice is to be preserved. 

11) By continued exercise a very weak voice may 
be strengthened, and a limited compass or uncertain in- 
tonation be extended and secured. Easy and judicious 
vocal exercises if they be practised daily, build up the 
voice organs, and give them flexibility, persistance and 
power. "Men's throats are like fire-arms; they are good 
and useful as long as they are kept polished ; otherwise 
they become rusty." 2 ) 

') A. B. Marx. Die Musik des 19. Jahrhundorts. 

2 ) Mattheson in his Patriot. Hamburgh 1728. Page 84. 


12) With regard to the care of the voice, it 
may be observed. 1 st . When singing. Any voice is 
improved by moderate and well ordered energy, and 
weakened by irregular singing, and too much forcing. 
You should never sing so as to be completely fatigued. 
Those notes which require an effort should be touched 
very seldom. One should never sing when in a great 
heat, or after much fatigue, nor immediately after eating, 
nor in an overheated or too cold apartment. Should the 
voice organs be unhealthy, or suffering from inflamma- 
tion, catarrh, or cough &c. ; then the person so affected 
should not attempt to sing. The same remark applies 
to boys when their voices commence to change. 

2nd When not singing. We should be always 
moderate in eating and drinking ; excess in the last men- 
tioned particular is very injurious to the voice ; avoid 
fatty meats, oily substances, all strong spirituous drinks, 
and pungent spices. Too much snuff-taking leaves it 
toneless and without resonance. The singer should be 
warmly clothed, yet not overclad, and avoid great ex- 
tremes of temperature. Draughts of cold air, North and 
East winds injuriously affect the voice. Playing wind 
instruments, should be avoided. They tighten the chest, 
and rob the voice of a great part of its power. 



I. Take a tuning fork ; make it vibrate by a gentle 
tap; then press the end firmly against a table, against 
a whole pane of glass, against a cracked pane, against 
a book, in succession. Notice that the tone derives a 
difference in character from each of these substances 


which it sets vibrating along with it. This experiment 
will suffice to show that the quality, (or as it is tech- 
nically called the timbre) of the voice, is modified and 
varied by every change in the shape, size, quality, and 
degree of elasticity of those parts which are connected 
with it, and which vibrate along with it. So that we 
cannot make any alteration whatever in the mouth or 
features without producing some corresponding change in 
the voice. 1 ) But pure tone must be formed in the 
larynx, and not in the upper parts of the throat, as is 
too commonly done. To acquire purity and steadiness 
of tone, vocalization is absolutely necessary, and con- 
stant exercise in the same ; i. e. sounding up and down 
the notes of the diatonic scale, to each of the five vowels 
A. E. I. 0. U. The first and most important exercise in 
vocalization is to produce the vowel A clear and steady 
on each degree of the scale. Stand upright, with the 
head held up in an easy attitude ; — fill the lungs ; — - 
let the jaw drop, and the tongue lie as flat and motion- 
less as possible. Keep the lips away from the teeth, and 
the corners of the mouth open. Then vocalize; i. e. sound 
the vowel A ; — (pronounced ah as in Father, charm, 
and such words). The mouth should be moderately open, 
not too much so, which would have the effect of throw- 
ing the tongue too much forward, and thereby depriving 
the larynx of that support to its muscles, which is na- 
turally given by the back of the tongue being held against 
it, and the tone losing firmness, becomes cracked and 
tremulous. All the notes of the scale should be sounded 
to this vowel ; being careful to breathe after each note, 
and not to change the posture of the body nor move 
the features, lips, or jaws, in the least. The only parts 

x ) Of course the natural form or shape of the mouth will modify 
the tone. 


that are to move, are the edges of the vocal aperture, 
and other parts in the larynx, which gradually become 
tighter and tighter, as the sound rises in pitch. This 
exercise should be frequently employed as it ensures the 
production of pure tone. "By this open vowel/' writes 
Herr Nauenburgh "the position of the mouth and tongue 
is at once regulated, the tone comes out instantaneously, 
without foreign admixture, and strikes on the right place 
in the cavity of the mouth." *) It is the most easily 
produced, and the parent of all the other vowel sounds ; 
the other vowel sounds being produced in fact, by making 
the mouth more narrow than it is whilst A is being 

Then for the 2 nd vowel, bring the lips together into 
a transverse slit, and let the tip of the tongue touch 
the base of the under row of teeth , and you produce 
the sound of E : — pronounced as a in baby , or fate. 
Go up and down on this vowel, as when sounding A; 
here again being, careful to preserve the positions of the 
mouth and features once they are fixed. In Exercise 
N° 3 , you contract the transverse slit of the lips still 
more, and let the tip of the tongue touch, no longer the 
base, but the upper edge of the same under row of teeth, 
and you produce I ; pronounced as ee in Bee. This vowel 
in the upper notes of the scale easily becomes shrill 
and piercing {spitz). 2 ) 

For N° 4 you bring the mouth into a decided oval 
shape , with the lips braced , resembling the shape of 
the vowel itself 0; and you sound 0. Practice on the 
vowel 0, enriches the tone, and throws the voice for- 
ward. Lastly, contract the aperture of the lips rather 

1 ) ''Daily Sing -Studies for all Voices." Breiikopf & Hartel, Leipsic. 

2 ) In sounding the lower notes to this vowel, more tone is pro- 
cured by "allowing the tongue to assume a concave form like the hollow 
of a spoon. 


more, diminish their tension by raising the lower jaw 
slightly, push them forward and then open, and you have 
the 5 th vowel U, sounded as double oo in goose. 

Observation. We here give the simple vowel sound. 
The english method of sounding this vowel, as in you, is 
diphthongal, and may be divided, if sounded slowly, into 
e-u. The simple sound as in soon, is much preferable, in 
Latin universally adopted , (if we except perhaps France) 
and one that will tend to eliminate that vulgarity in pro- 
nunciation, with which our ears are painfully familiarized. 

In vocalizing therefore, A is the parent sound, most 
naturally and most easily produced. E and I are found 
by contracting the aperture of the mouth transversely: 
and U, by contracting it circularly. In each of these 
cases however there is one and the same sound produced 
in the larynx; it only becomes altered in its passage 
out of. the mouth. This can be proved by sounding the 
five vowels , one after the other , and without taking 
breath; which may be best done in the following order: 
I. E. A. 0. U. In this experiment the throat remains 
unaltered whilst the mouth changes its shape. When 
singing up or down the scale to any one vowel, the 
mouth remains unaltered, whilst the throat keeps moving, 
tightening or relaxing according as we ascend or descend 
the scale. 1 ) 

Double vowels such as a-i, a-u, e-i, e-u; ae, oe &c, 
are sometimes sounded separately, and sometimes to- 
gether. (See, next Chap.) In the latter case they are 
called Diphthongs and then the last vowel is slurred, 
and the stress laid on the first. Exercises on singing 
the Diphthongs should therefore be resorted to, in order 
to enable the voice to sing them in an easy flowing 

') Padre Martini Vol. 3. Page 432. quoting from Vossius says "esser 
vasta e sonora la vocale A, grave ed elegante I'JE, debole I'J, vasta la 
lettera 0, e con qualche ragione magnifica; le due vocali I e If si fanno 
di per se siesse conoscere, oscure, e di suon bujo." 


manner. Before quitting the subject of vowel sounds, it 
becomes most necessary to caution students at the outset 
against the pernicious habit of aspirating vowels; i.e. 
putting an h before them. Nothing can be more bar- 
barous than when singing Amen to a group of notes, to 
sing it as if it were written A-me-hen. 

II. The sounds of articulate speech, are, as all must 
know, divided into vowels, and consonants. Vowels 
are the open sounds, and produced as we have just seen, 
when the mouth is open more or less. Consonants are 
produced by interrupting the vowel sounds, at some part 
or other of their passage outwards. Towel sounds there- 
fore may be sustained as long as you like, as long as 
your breath holds out; consonants on the contrary, 
should be pronounced decidedly and clearly , but as 
quickly as possible. Therefore when singing, never dwell 
upon a consonant; — sing the vowel, dwell on it, and 
bite it off, as it were, with the consonant. It is only 
that tone which proceeds straight outwards from the 
throat , which is at all musical. Such is the tone of 
the vowels. Those sounds, on the contrary, which are 
produced by closing any part of the mouth , (as in 
the case of consonants, which are mere interruptions 
to tone,) are unmusical. They are hissings, or explo- 
sions, or vibrations of the tongue, necessary enough to 
separate the vowels one from another, but in themselves 
destitute of musical quality, and most unpleasant to the 
ear. Therefore again, when singing any syllable to any 
note, and especially any long note, single out the vowel, 
and sing on it. Let the consonant be heard, by all 
means, at the beginning or at the end as the case 
may be, but do not dwell on it. Too often we hear the 
word Kyrie sung, as if it were written Ky-ur-ri-e; and 
Miserere, as if it were Mi-se-re-ir-re. Another bad habit 
is that of putting a consonant where it does not exist, 


or where there is no need whatever for it. Thus we 
sometimes hear namavit, for amavit; mmater for mater; 
nregi for regi; and more commonly still, nor emus , or 
gnoremus for or emus. In a language so rich in vowels 
as the Latin language, and thereby so well adapted for 
singing, it is only increasing the difficulties of the voice 
to be adding on consonants where even orthography for- 
bids them. 

Again each word of the text must be clearly and 
distinctly enunciated. No syllables should be glided over, 
nor should final syllables be tacked on to the next word, 
as for example, e tin scecula, for et in scecula; Kyrieleison, 
for Kyrie eleison. Whenever there is a comma, observe 
it; in other cases pronounce the final consonant clearly, 
and make the slightest possible, almost an imperceptible 
break in the tone, before the next vowel. For the third 
time let it be stated; — Sing the vowel, let the con- 
sonant just be heard. So that in the word Sanctus, the 
first syllable of which is usually sung to a long note 
even in modern music, let that first syllable be 8a- and the 
second, -nctus; and not San-ctus, or still worse Sang-tus. 

From the articulation of syllables to the articulation 
of complete words or phrases of a sentence, the transi- 
tion is not difficult. All that need be remembered is to 
manage the breath well, to adapt the power of the voice 
to the dimensions of the building in which it is to be 
heard, and to utter the words distinctly. He is a good 
speaker who declaims well, who has a distinct utterance, 
speaking slowly and with a clear voice , distinguishing 
the important from the less important passages of his 
speech, and knowing when to raise or lower his voice, so 
as to bring out the sense and meaning of his words and 
phrases. "We have said it already, at least in equivalent 
terms; — that Word and Tone are related. The Word 
puts meaning into the Tone, and the Tone throws 


warmth and life into the Word. Music is the language 
of the feelings , as words are the language of the un- 



I. The Latin language has the vowels a, e, i, o, 
u (v), (y)\ and the Diphthongs ae, oe : au and eu. A has 
always the one sound Pater, as a in the English word 
father. E is pronounced as a in gate or say when be- 
fore a, i, o and u; before consonants in general as e in 
met. I and Y are prononuced as ee in seen. as o in no, 
and U under all circumstances, and in all cases, as oo in 
goose. The vowel y is taken from the Greek alphabet and 
found in such words as Kyrie, hyssopo, Babylon, buty- 
rum, coenomyia and sounded as I. The Diphthongs ae and 
oe, as in sae-cu-lum, coe-lum, are pronounced as the vowel 
E itself, i. e. as a in the English word say. The Diph- 
thong eu is only met with in the words heu, eheu, ceu, 
seu, neu , neuter and neutiquam, and the Greek words 
JEu-ge and Euphrates, and then the first vowel is made 
the more prominent. But in all other words as De-us, 
me-us, re-us, o-le-um, fer-re-us , the two vowels are 
sounded apart. Ei is a Diphthong in the word hei, in 
all other words , the vowels are sounded separately, 
therefore ele-ison, de-inde, de-itas, di-e-i; ui is a diph- 
thong in huic and cui, in which the stress is laid on the 
first vowel and the second slurred. They should never 
be pronounced as the English words pike or sky. Those 
vowels are separate in Spi-ri-tu-i, ge-nu-i, vo-lu-i dtc. 
Au is always a Diphthong, and to be pronounced as ou 
in the English word house. Sometimes when the vowels 


should be sounded separately, this is indicated by two 
little dots placed over the last vowel , called puncta 
diareseos . which distinguish them from other words 
of identical spelling; thus a'er, aeris (to distinguish it 
from aeris), Israel. 1 ) V, v in early Latin is often written 
for U; as in vnvm for tmum; and is then pronounced 
of course as the vowel U: but w T hen used as a con- 
sonant in such words as Veritas, vox, silva Sc. it is 
pronounced as our English v in voice. The Consonants 
are b, c, d, f, g, h, (k), 1, m, n, 2 ) p, q, r, s, t, x, (z); 
and for them the general rule is: Pronounce them as 
they are written. The exceptions are 1 st with regard 
to the letter c. 3 ) G before e, i, y, ae, oe and eu, should 
be pronounced as ch in cheese or child; before other 
vowels and all consonants as k. Therefore the words 
ce-drus, ci-bd-vit, Cy-re-ne, cae-sus, coe-lum, ceu, should 
be sounded as if written tsche-drus, tschi-ba-vit &c. When 
however c comes before h itself, it is pronounced as Jc, 
e. g. chirotheca will be Jcirotheca. Sc before the same 

1 ) In this word Israel, and in all such words not of Latin origin, 
the puncta diareseos, are deemed superfluous, and are consequently 
omitted. To this class belong the Hebrew names, Mi-sa-el, Gelbo-e, 
Ephra-im &c. 

2 ) These are three consonants (I, m, n) that singers have most 
reason to be careful of; for there is a great tendency to prolong them, 
and if so the vowel is sacrificed, and the tone infallibly becomes nasal. 

3 ) We prefer adopting the Italian pronunciation of the Latin for 
many reasons; 1 st because it is the pronunciation adopted at the 
fountain head, Rome; 2 nd because it is spreading very rapidly, and in 
England and the United Stafes is all but universal; lastly, because 
it is more musical. The soft c before e and i, is decidedly better 
adapted for vocalization than the hissing consonant s into which c is 
converted in countries outside of Italy. The Germans affect a com- 
promise and pronounce the c as an z, e. g. zedrus, zibavit. However 
the rules laid down here lor the pronunciation of this letter, whether 
in its simple form or in composition, need not be adhered to by those 
accustomed to another pronunciation, except in so far as they may 
wish to promote uniformity. But we would be anxious to insist on the 
Italian pronunciation of U in all cases, and without exception, for it 
is a matter of the greatest importance in singing Latin. 



vowels is sounded as sh in should; thus descendit, read 
as if deshendit. Sch is to be separated: Pas-cha, s-chola. 
Xc, before e, i, y, &c. is as gsh in egg-shell: thus 
excelsis, should be pronounced as if written eggshelsis. 
Double cc, before the vowels mentioned is pronounced 
as tc, e. g. Ec-ce, pronounced Etsche. The 2 nd exception 
is with regard to the letter j, when used as a consonant 
in the words Juda, Jerusalem, jam,, juxta &c. it is to be 
pronounced as y in the word you; or indeed we may say 
it is still to be considered as the same vowel i, only 
written in that lengthened form j" before another vowel 
and when commencing a syllable. Therefore the words 
shall be Yuda, Yerusalem, Yesus &c. G is always soft be- 
fore e and i as ge-nu-i. K is usually sounded as hard c. 
X and Z are double consonants, and to be treated as 
cs and ds. Z occurs only in foreign words. 

When a vowel follows the syllable ti, this syllable 
is to be pronounced as if zi e. g. o-ti-um, gra-ti-as, ju- 
sti-ti-a, are equal to, o-zi-um, gra-zi(dsi)-as, yu-sti-zi-a. 
Except from this rule foreign names such as Aegypti-i, 
and when another t, s or x comes immediately before 
this syllable ; therefore, ostium, mixtio. Qu, gu and su, 
are sounded as Jciv, gtv and sw, when they form one 
syllable with the following vowel; thus, quan-do, san- 
guis, sua-vis; but when they form a distinct syllable as 
in su-um, they are pronounced according to the rules 
already given. Sequutus and loquutus, are but different 
ways of writing secutus and lo cuius , and are to be 
sounded accordingly. 

When two vowels come together, one at the end of 
a word, and the other commencing the following word, 
we meet with the so-called Hiatus, or break. In Poetry, 
the rule is, elide the first vowel. In the Christmas Hymn 
for instance, Jesu Redemptor, whether reading or singing- 
it , we must say, antoriginem, and not ante originem. 


In the new official edition (Ratisbon) of the Vesper al, 
this is indicated by the sign ^ placed where the hiatus 
occurs. In the JDirectorium chori (same edition) page [42], 
mille~ angelorimi = millcmgelorum, or supernoTet = su- 
pemet. 1 ) In Prose however the rule laid down in the 
preceding chapter holds good; i. e. the final syllables 
of words must never be absorbed into the first sellable 
of the next word. Consequently it will be Kyrie e-le-i-son, 
and not Kyrieleison. 2 ) Double vowels in the middle or 
beginning of words are to be uttered separately, thus 
de-esse, e-le-emosyna, au-di-it, A-aron. 

The division of words into their constituent syllables 
is sufficiently indicated in the new liturgical books by 
hyphens placed between each syllable. However a few 
leading rules may be here given for general use: 1 st . A 
consonant coming between two vowels , belongs to the 
latter vowel, as pa-ter, lau-do. 2 nd . Consonants which 
commence a Latin or Greek word together , remain 
together when forming the inner syllable of a word ; e.g. 
pa-tris, e-sca, i-gnis, o-mnis, scri-ptus, pa-stor, ho-spes ; 
on the other hand man-da-vit, San-ctus (although in 
singing the n must not be allowed to interfere with the a) 
re-dem-ptio. Double consonants are pronounced separate- 
ly ; e. g. pos-ses-si-6-nem. Compound words are divided 
into their component parts, sns-ce-pit, tam-quam. 

II. The production of pure tone by vocalization, the 
correct articulation of vowels and consonants, and their 
real power or sound, may be called the elements of song; 
now we come to speak of the manner in which these 
elements should be put together to constitute good sing- 

') In the Hymn "A Solis ortus" we have in the 6 th strophe to 
sing pastest for pastus est. 

2 ) This insufficient pronounciation of the word is unfortunately 
very common. Also the le-i, is made one syllable and pronounced as the 
English Zie, which is wrong; the e and i "should be sounded separately. 



ing. It has been already pointed out in Chap. 4. that 
singing is not merely the mechanical utterance of words 
to a certain time; but an art, and a high art, because 
dealing with noble and exalted sentiments. We pointed 
out in that Chapter what a very important role is as- 
signed to rhythm and accent in Gregorian Chant ; and 
as a general rule we may lay down, that, in singing, 
the natural accent of syllables in words , of words in 
clauses, and of clauses in sentences ought to be preserved. 
But how are we to know this natural accent. In words 
of more than two syllables, the new Edition of the Ritual 
Books marks the accented syllable with a little stroke, 
thus , re-di-me. So that we need only give rules for 
monosyllables, and dissyllables. Monosyllables are always 
accented. In dissyllables the accent falls (unless other- 
wise marked) on the first syllable; thus: md-ter, ho-mo.. 
Hebrew names such as Sion, Juda dbc. have the accent 
on the last syllable ; and this is the reason why in the 
mediation of the Psalms, as we shall afterwards see, the 
voice is inflected upwards, as with monosyllables. 

A complete dissertation on long and short syllables, 
their relations to each other in composition, and the 
difference between Quantity and Accent, would be out 
of place here. As a general rule however , it may be 
stated, that the syllable, which immediately follows an 
accented syllable, is shorter than the syllable next com- 
ing on. Thus in the word ho-mi-nes ; ho is accented, mi 
is short, nes not quite so short. A vowel followed im- 
mediately by another vowel, is, as a rule, short; e. g. 
proprio, omnia. In the Recitation of Psalms, Lessons, 
Prayers &c. we should carefully distinguish the reading 
from the musical accent. In reading, all the rules for 
pronunciation, and accentuation should be faithfully ad- 
hered to. In singing, the voice must give still greater 
emphasis to the accented syllable, and the other syllables 


should follow humbly and quietly in its train. A strong ac- 
centuation of the syllable mi in hominibus, demands pre- 
paratory voice power on the preceeding syllable ho; and 
ni and bus fall in respectively as weaker and less weak 
echoes. The accents of words of many syllables, take 
precedence of dissyllabic accents, and serve as it were 
the purpose of distance posts in the recitation. Even in 
English a continuous succession of monosyllables and 
dissyllables becomes tiresome. Let the text of the Credo 
serve as an example, where the weightest accents are 
laid on the syllables Pa, ten, cto, Fi ge Sc. He who 
reads and accentuates well , and is gifted with a good 
voice and sufficient technical knowledge, mast sing 
Gregorian effectively. 



Striking the note, or the strike in singing, means 
good Intonation; 1 ) that is to say a facility of hitting 
the exact note of the scale you wish to sing, decidedly, 
in tune, and without any preparatory sliding up to it. 
The "good attack" as M. Fetis calls it; or "that 
vigorous shock of the glottis," as Garcia describes 
it, should become a habit of the singer. The voice should 
always have a bold decided opening, as well as a dis- 
tinct close. Each note should be like a newly cut coin. 
Nothing can be more injurious to the good effect of 
singing than an uncertain, timid, groping for the note; 

') Tinctoris in his "Definitorium" writes: "Intonatio est debita 
cantus inchoatio" 


or sliding up to a distant interval, and then only reach- 
ing it with exhausted breath, and out of tune. Intonation 
must be decided, and true. For this purpose regulate 
the pitch of the voice, according to the compass of the 
music to be sung. Choose neither too high nor too low 
a tone to commence with, but one that lies securely in 
the middle register of the voice. When a long recitation 
must be sung to the one note, let the pitch be a me- 
dium pitch, for if high, the voice becomes disagreeably 
shrill and strident, if low, inaudible. 

An ear for music may be acquired or a defective 
ear considerably improved, by industrious practice of the 
simpler intervals, and with the assistance of an instru- 
ment, (Violin or Pianoforte). 

We are said to sing flat when the voice falls a 
little from the true tone of the note; false when we 
differ a complete semitone from the note to be sung; 
and incorrectly when we strike a different note al- 
together from the one indicated. 

The following exercises in the different intervals of 
the scale, may be practised on the vowel sounds, on the 
letters of the alphabet, on the syllables of Guido, or on 
words, and should be repeated again and again, until the 
student acquires steadiness and purity of Intonation. 1 ) 



re mi fa sol la si ut re ut si la sol fa mi re 
Be - a - tus vir qui ti-met Do - mi-num, be - ne - di - ce - tur. 

') Quintillian says: "Phonascis et oratoribus, necessaria est exerci- 
tatio qua omnia convalescunt" 


II. Seconds. 



7a si la si ut si 

e f e 

ut re tit re mi re mi fa mi 
G16-ri - a, Ky - ri - e, im - pi -us, vo-lun-'as, D6-mi-nus, 

fgf gag ahc hcd'cde 

fa sol fa sol la sol la si ut si ut re ut re mi 

vin-cu-la, be - a-tus, sae-cu-lum, fer-re-us, D6-mi-nus, 

def efg lga gab ahc 

re mi fa mi fa sol fa sol la 
ha - be - mus, si - de - ra , lau - da - te, 

sol la sa sol si ut 
16-que- re, Ga-briel, 


h c d h 

f g 

h c d e 


si ut re si ut re mi fa sol la 

An - ge - lus. Di - li - gam te Do - mi - ne 


si ut re mi 
in ae-ter-num. 

IV. Thirds. 

e g e 

f a f g 

h. g h 

mi sol mi fa la fa sol mi sol la ut la si sol si 
Se-cun-dum, ex -eel -sis, la-bi-a, pro-ba-sti, ho -mi-num, 

d h d 


h d h 

ut mi ut re si re ut la ut si re si la ut 
fi - li - us, pu - ri- tas, Ma - ri - a, Sal -va- tor. Sal - ve, 


d f 

si sol fa la sol mi 
san-cta, pa-rens, De-us, 

re fa mi ut re si 
po-tens, cle-mens, pi - a, 



f g a h 


* - W * - N ■ 

• ■ 

5 --2 y ■ -*v 


re mt /a mi re mi 
ful - gu - ris, 6 - mni - a. 

e d c h 

a g 

fa sol la si ut re mi fa 
Ex - au - di Do - mi - ne ju - sti- 

f e d 


mi re ut si la sol 
ti - am me - am, in - ten 


VI. Fourths. 

c f e 

g f e 

jjgjjj l 

fa mi re ut. 
de D6-mi-ne. 


b a 

ut fa mi re sol fa mi la sol fa sa la sol 
In - ten - de , 16 - qui-tur, vo - la - vit , a-scen- dit , con- 

cb adc hed efe dac b 

ut sa la re ut si mi re ut fa mi re la ut sa 
- spe-ctus, o - de-runt, a-mi-cus, gra - ti - as, de-bi-tum, in" 



d f 


g a 

fa la 

e f 

sol re fa mi ut fa 
te - ne-brae, Cre - a - tor, 

sol la si ut re 
- mni - a quae-cum- 

f? f e d 


8 * M ■ 

mi fa sol fa mi re ut si la 
que vo - lu - it fe - cit in coe-lo 

sol fa mi re. 
et in ter-ra. 

VIIX. Fifths, and mixed Intervals. 

dfgad efgae f 

re fa sol la re mi fa sol la mi 
Ke-dem - pti - 6 -nem, glo - ri - fi - ca-mus, 

fa ut ut fa 
tran -si - e-runt, 


g had g acea chcdf 

sol si la re sol la ut mi la ut si ut re fa 

for - ti - tu - di - nem, o - cu - 16-rum, Do-nec po-nam i - 

edcha cfegc 

mi re ut si la ut fa mi sol ut. 
- ni - mf - cos tu - os ; non de - re - lin - quas. 

Observation. The best exercises for ear -improve- 
ment, recitation, pronunciation, and intervals, are as ex- 
perience teaches, the Psalm-Tones; then, for beginners, 
the Anthems of the B. V. M. for the four seasons, as in 
the Directorium Chori, then the Chants of the Mass, (espe- 
cially the Credo) in the Ordinarium Missce , and Graduate 

Here we subjoin a setting of all the Intervals ac- 
cording to a quaint old form. 1 ) 

Ter ter - ni sunt mo - di, qui - bus o - mnis can- ti - le - na 
From 3x3 (9 without unison) Intervals is every song 

con - te - xi - tur, scf-li-cet: U - m'-so-nus, Se - mi - to - ni - um, 
constructed, namely: Unison, minor second {\ Ton), 

To - nus, Se - mi - di - to-nus, Di - to - nus, Di - a - tes-saron, 
fulltone, minor Third, major Third, Fourth, 

') In Coussemacker, Script. Tom. 111. pag. 425; also in 1 st and 3 d 
vol. several similar combinations are found. The example here given 
is also found in Glarean and Gerbert. 


Di-a-pente, Se-mi-to-ni-um cum di - a-pente, To-nus cum 
Fifth, minor Sixth major 

di-a-pente, ad haec mo-dus di - a -pa -son. Si quern 
Sixth, then the Octave. "Who wishes 

de - le - ctat can-tus hos mo-dos es-se cog -no -scat, 
to enjoy song, must know these Intervals. 

') In Coussemacher the following sentence is also put to music in 
different Intervals. "Cumque tarn paucis clausulis tota armonia for- 
metur, utilissimum est, eas alte memoriae commendare, nec prius ab 
hujus modi studio quiescere, donee vocum intervallis agnitis harmonia 
totius facillime queat comprehendere notitiam." In other words "prac- 
tice a little, zealously and continuously, and you will learn to strike 
the notes securely." 






In Chapter 4 th it was shown how all elementary 
musical sounds , proceed in a certain natural order ; 
starting from any* one sound, taken as first, and going 
to the eight or octave, which is but a repercussion of 
the first in a different pitch. So that there may be as 
many (Diatonic) scales, as there are different sounds in 
the scale itself; i. e. seven. Moreover each scale is di- 
visible into two integral, constituent parts, a fifth and 
a fourth: — diatessaron and diapente. Now, when the 
sounds of any one of these seven scales; — thus divis- 
ible into fifths and fourths ; — are so disposed in the course 
of a melody or musical phrase, that all of them, ascend- 
ing or descending, bear a fixed relation to one 'principal 
or fundamental sound; the melody so constructed is 
said to be in a Church mode, or tone. 1 ) Ugolinus 

l ) It cannot be too frequently or too clearly stated that there is 
a wide essential difference between the Church Modes or Gamuts, and 
the so-called Keys of modern music. In the seven scales of the Dia- 
tonic genus, the order of the tones and semitones, depends upon the 
first sound of the series; whereas in modern music, the different keys, 
major or minor, are but transpositions of the same progression of 
sounds, into a higher or lower pitch. 


(died A. D. 1626) writes "Tropus, tonus sive modus est 
quamplurium vocum ex diapente ac diatessaron ordinatis 
speciebus debite conjunctarum in acumine et gravitate 
distantium per arsin et thesin congrua neumarum forma 
constitutarum conveniens disposition *) 

The modality or tonality of a scale depends upon 
the character of the pentachord and tetrachord ; — dia- 
pente or diatessaron; — which it comprises, and this 
character is determined by the position of the semitone. 

There axe four combinations of fifths (pentachords), 
and three of fourths (tetrachords) to be distinguished. 
From I) to a, and from a to e, we find the mi-fa, or 
semitone between the 2 nd and 3 d degree. From E to bi), 
it comes between the 1 st and 2 nd degree; from F to c, 
between the 4 th and 5 th ; and from G to d, and c to g, 
between the 3 d and 4 th . Similarly in the fourths, the 
semitone lies from A to D, and D to G , between the 
2 nd and 3 d ; from Bfc to E, and E to a, between the 
1 st and 2 nd ; and from C to F, and G to c between the 
3 d and 4 th degrees. 

The most ancient musical theorists speak of 8 modes 
only, which were constructed on the sounds represented 
by D, E„ F, G; and so constructed that each scale had 
two methods of progression. 1 st . The scales beginning 
with D, E, F, G and proceeding by a fifth, and then 
a fourth; called authentic. 2 ) 2 nd . When the fourth 

') We already alluded to the various significations of the word 
tone in Church Music. Here it signifies a scale or gamut or system^ of 
sounds. However the correct Latin name was modus, in contradistinction 
to tonus, denoting certam fixed forms of the mode such as the Psalm- 
tunes. This was customary up to the 15 th century. The notions were 
altered, so that, e. g. in Tmctoris the word modus designated the time 
notation of a chant, and tonus the key or scale on which the chant was 
constructed. Toni also indicate the 8 fixed forms of the Psalm tunes, 
Gloria Patri &c. and modi the keys or gamuts of the antiphonal chants. 

2 ) av&sviiis, principal, original, because they furnish the funda- 
mental tone of the other modes. They were also called Ambrosian, 
because these alone were used by St. Ambrose (A. D. 397) in his Liturgy. 


instead of being uppermost as in the authentic scales 
is placed under the fifth; whereby the compass is al- 
tered, and the fundamental tone becomes the fourth in 
this new octave series ; though still fundamental. Such 
scales or modes are called plagal. 1 ) 

Synopsis of the 8 Modes. 

I. Modus authenticus. II. Modus plagalis. 

D E F G a a h c d AHCDDEFGa 

Fifth. Fourth. Fourth. Fifth. 

III. Modus authent. IV. Modus plagal. 

EFGah hcde HCD£ E F G a h 

Fifth. Fourth. Fourth. Fifth. 

V. Modus authent. VI. Modus plagal. 

F G a h c cdef CDEFFGahc 

Fifth. Fourth. Fourth. Fifth. 

VII. Modus authent. VIII. Modus plagal. 

Gahcd defg DEFGGahcd 

Fifth. Fourth. Fourth. Fifth. 

After the 12 th century the Gregorian system of 
scales was extended still further, and modes authentic 
and plagal were constructed on a, h\ and c/) divided 

') 7//a'ytot, obliqui, laterales, or collateral modes; also called dis- 
cipuli, or pupils, in contradistinction to the authentic called magistri. 

2 ) Glareanus (1488-1563) in his Dodecachordon treats of 12 modes. 
The scale forsooth in which the diminished fifth or tritone (bfcj-f, f-bty) 
occurred, was not usually employed for the construction of chants 
or melodies, and hence it comes that, what are theoretically the 13 th 
and 14 th modes, are counted practically as 11 th and 12 th . 


in the same manner into fifths and fourths. So that in 
this extension, or increasing of the number of scales or 
modes, the principle was not altered. 

IX. Modus authent X. Modus plagal. 

ahcde efga E F G a ahcde 

Fifth. Fourth. Fourth. Fifth. 

XL Modus authent. XII. Modus plagal. 

hcdef f "g "a h F G a h hcdef 

False Fifth. ' Tritone. Tritone. False Fifth. 

XIII. Modus authent. XIV. Modus plagal. 

cdefg g a h "c Gahc cdefg 

Fifth. Fourth. Fourth. Fifth. *) 

On closer examination we find that the 9 th mode, 
over steps the boundaries or compass of Gregorian song, 
extending to ~g (commencing a 3 d octave) ; therefore it is 
but seldom and thus used. After the 12 th century the 
10 th mode was frequently employed. The 11 th and 12 th 
have in their respective fifths, two semitones, and in 
their fourths, not even one; and were therefore adopted 
only in a few melodic forms, where these false relations 

') The well known decision of Charlemagne "octo toni sufficere 
videntur;" "eight tones appear to be sufficient:" shows 1 st that even in 
his time attempts were made to increase the number of the Gregorian 
gamuts or systems; but secondly, that reference is made to peculiar 
tixed intonations of the Psalms, "toni psalmorum" for at that time it 
would appear that a distinction was drawn between tonus and modus. 
Jerome of Moravia at all events in the 13^ century charges Guido, 
with having used the words tonus and modus carelessly and without dis- 
crimination. See Coussemaker Tom. I. page 74 &c. In modern usage, 
the terms are convertible and we use the word Tone not only to 
indicate the Psalm tunes, but also the modes of the Antiphons, Introits, 
Responsories &c. and write over them Tonus I, Tonus II. &c. 


of the fifth and fourth could be easily avoided. The 13 th 
mode has become most common, and in the lower octave 
runs thus y H — x=W^=W=Mz:jj= r^p ; corresponding 

exactly with our modern scale of C major. The 14 th 
mode because of its similarity with the 7 th , is scarcely 
ever to be met with. For practical purposes therefore 
we may reckon only the 9 th , 10 th and 13 th in addition 
to the eight original modes. 

CHAPTER 10th. 


Henceforth we will call the Church scales: Tones. 
I. The eight (14) Church tones, are as we have said 
divided into two classes, authentic and plagal. Nu- 
merically arranged they are called primus, secundus, 
tertius, quartus &c. i. e. first, second, third, fourth. The 
superadded Grecian appellations, which have been uni- 
versally employed since Glarean's time (A. D. 1563), 
were familiar to the earliest writers, and differ but little 
from the titles used by Jerome of Moravia, John de 
Muris, Ugolinus &c. They are as follows. 

Modi authentici. Modi plagales. 

/. Dorius. 111. Phry gins. II. Hypodorius?) IV. Hypophrygius. 
V. Lydius. VII. Mixolyd. VI. Hypolydius. VIII. Hypomixolyd. 
IX. Aolins. (XI. Hyperaol) X. Hypoaolius. (XII. Hyperpliryg.) 

(XIII) XI. Jonicus. (XIV.) XII. Hypoionicns}) 

') vtio, under, because the fourth in plagal-scales comes under 
the fundamental tone, or tonic. 

Some of the old writers considered the numbering of the modes 
as 1 st , 2 nd , 3 d &c. incorrect ; and preferred calling them ; protus authen- 
tus, plagius protus, or scale of re authentic, scale of re plagal &c. In 
the treatises on Music attributed to St. Bernard, we find the systems 
or scales called manerice. 


II. On comparing the authentic with the plagal, (by 
looking at the synopsis already given) we find the follow- 
ing differences. 

1) The authentic have the fifth below, and the 
fourth above. In the Plagal modes the fourth is below, 
and the fifth above. Both fourths and fifths are alike in 
each pair of modes, but their relative position different. 

2) The authentic mode and its corresponding plagal 
together have a compass {ambitus) or range of eleven 
notes, of which five are common to both, and three not 

3) The 1 st and 8 th ; 2 nd and 9 th ; 3 d and 10 th ; 4* 
and (11 th ); 5 th and (12*); 6 th and 11* (13*); 7 th and 
12 th (14 th ) have exactly similar scales, but by reason of 
the different position of the semitone, and of the fourths 
and fifths, they are easily distinguishable. In the 1 st , 
3 d , 5 th , 7 th 9 th (11 th ) and 11 th (13 th ) the fourth follows 
the fifth. In the Tones marked with even numbers, i. e. 
the plagal, the fifth follows the fourth. 

4) The first note of each authentic and its cor- 
responding plagal scale, is called the fundamental note 
(tonus fundamentalis) , or Tonica , because the melody 
is built up and constructed upon it It is also, and 
more commonly called the Final, finalis, because every 
authentic and plagal melody when regular, ends with 
it. The Finals therefore, as we shall call them, or 
fundamental notes of each tone, are as follows: 


D, re E, mi F, fa F, fa ' G, sol a, la 


h. si c, ut. 


So that there are fourteen (12) tones, and but seven 
finals; each authentic tone and its relative plagal, being 
constructed on the same final. In the plagal scales, 
the final conies fourth in the series , in the authentic 
scales it is first. A Tone is said to be regular (re- 
gularis), when the phrase or melody closes with its re- 
gular final; if it end on any other note it is called 
irregular, irregularis*. 

These irregular finals are also called Confinal 
notes, and are often met with in the endings of Psalm 
tunes, and in the divisions or sections of Responsories, 
Graduals and Tracts. 

5) The range or compass of the authentic and pla- 
gal modi, and the peculiar relations of each note of 
these different octave species when actually employed, 
give rise to another classification. 

The Tone for instance is called: 

1. Perfect, Tonus perfectus , if , in authentic 
modes, the melody ranges to the octave: or — in plagal 
modes, to the fifth above and the fourth below the final. 
Examples: the Communio iC Ecce Virgo" page 11; Introit 
u Miser ebitur" p. 427; Offertorium "Benedictas es" p. 72 
of the Octavo official edition of the Graduate Bomamim 
(Ratisbon 1870). Here the rule is borne out: "Omnis 
cantilence legalis ascensus et descensus per diapason con- 
struitur" *) 

2. Imperfect, Tonus imperfectus, when in authen- 
tic tones, the octave from the final is not reached, or 
in plagal tones the fourth below the final. The Anti- 
phons, especially of the small canonical hours, the La- 
mentations of Holy Week (VI. Toni), and several smaller 

■) Gerbert, Script. Tom. II. p. 58. 



forms of chant, such as the Intonations of the Psalms, 
(which however, are made perfect by the Antiphon to 
which they are united), belong to this class. 

3. More than perfect, or superfluous {Tonus 
plusquamperfectms or super abundans), when the authen- 
tic mode contains a note below its final, or above its 
octave; or when the plagal mode ranges downwards 
more than a fourth from its final. 

4. Mixed (Tonus mixtus), when the natural range, 
(ambitus) of a mode, is exceeded by more than one 
note, so that the authentic and its corresponding plagal 
may be said to run into one another, of this we have 
examples in the Te Deum, in the Sequences Lauda Sion. 
Dies Irce, Veni Sancte Spiritus &c. In case the plagal 
Tone preponderates , it is specially marked in the new 
(Ratisbon) editions of the Ritual Books: e.g. page 328 
of the Graduate (8 V0 ) : we have the Offertory "Oravi" 
Ton. IV. and III.; page 437 Gradual: "Vindica Domine" 
Ton. VI. and V. 

5. The Tone is called communis perfectus , if the 
authentic tone ranges to the fourth below the final (and 
thereby becomes plagal) or the plagal to the octave above 
the final (and so becomes authentic). The melody, then 
comprises the eleven notes of the authentic and its plagal 
united. We have an example of this in the Easter Se- 
quence " Victims Paschali" page 232, and in the Anti- 
phon "Cum appropinquaret" for the Procession of Palm- 
Sunday page 172. 


CHAPTER 11th. 


In order to know to which Tone any given Chant 
belongs, certain signs or marks are necessary. The surest 
and most general sign is the final. The next charac- 
teristic mark to determine the Tone will be its range, 
ambitus. This shows to what scale the melody belongs, 
whether such scale be fully or only partially employed; 
and serves also to mark the difference between perfect 
and imperfect Tones. (See preceding Chapter.) The 
third mark or sign to indicate the Tone of a Gregorian 
melody, is the Dominant ,*) also called the Tenor. In 
the annexed Table the Finals and Dominants of the 12 
(14) Tones are shown together. 



Do min. 

































e [d]) 




(XIII.) XI. 






( XIV.) XII. 



To distinguish therefore the plagal from the authentic 
tone ; — as both have the same hnal ; — we must see 
if the melody ranges downwards more than one note 
below the final ; and observe which note may be the 
Dominant, i. e. on which note is the body of the words 
sung or recited. In more florid compositions this will 
be less apparent, but it will be always found that in 

') The student must be careful to distinguish between the Dom- 
inant in Gregorian; and the Dominant in modern music which is al- 
ways a f)t»i above the tonic. In Gregorian it varies. 



singing in any particular mode, the voice always has a 
tendency to attach itself to the Dominant. 

Finals and Dominants one with another give what 
is called the Repercussion, i.e. the Interval which in 
each Tone may be inverted. According to the Table 
given above, the Repercussion in each Tone, is: 
I. Toni re-la, II. re-fa, III. mi-ut, IV. mi-la, V. fa-ut, 
VI. fa-la, VII. sol-re, VIII. sol-ut, IX. la-mi, X. la-ut, 
(XI.) si-sol, (XII.) si-mi (re), (XIII.) XL ut-sol, 
(XIV.) XII. ut-mi. 

Again , in the authentic Tones the melody goes 
to the Final by degrees; in the plagal tones often- 
times by skips i.e. more or less distant intervals. Lastly, 
each Tone, has certain notes, or note-groupings, with 
which the chant usually begins ; and as a Rule, it may 
be observed, that in authentic Tones the Chant never 
begins with an Interval reaching from the final to the 
fifth, or in plagals to the fourth. In the construction 
of the middle cadences, (sections of the musical compo- 
sition indicated with punctuation marks , ; : &c.) the 
rule is observed, to make them, in authentic tones, on 
the final, the fifth, or intermediate notes, and in plagals , 
never to go beyond the fourth. For the eight Church 
Tones most in use, we may enumerate the initial notes 
or Intonations, as follows : 

Ton. I.: C, D, F, G, (E, a). Ton. V.: F, G, a, c. 
Ton. II.: A, C, D, F. Ton. VI.: Q (D, E), F, (a). 

Ton. HI.: E, F, G, a (c). Ton. VII.: G, b% c, d. 
Ton. VI.: C, D, E, F, G, a. Ton. VIII.: C, D, F, G, a, c. 

For all practical purposes, singers of Gregorian Chant 
have but to glance at the book and the number of the 
Tone will be found printed in all the new editions. 


CHAPTER 12th. 

There is one fundamental law in Gregorian Chant 
which must be observed in all the Tones, to wit: "The 
immediate progression of an augmented fourth (Tri- 
tonus) or a diminished fifth is not allowable in Gre- 
gorian, and such Intervals when met with must be made 
perfect, by placing a b before the si? and so depress- 
ing it a semitone. 

This Rule observed in the composition of Chants in 
each of the Gregorian systems or Gamuts, renders the 
remarks about to follow deserving of attention. They 
are mostly gathered from the definitions collected and 
published by Father Utto Kornmliller 0. S. B. 1 ) 

The scale or gamut of the 1 st Tone, (cloric) is made 
up of the first 2 ) species of fifth (diapente) and the first 
species of fourth (diatessaron) (See Synopsis p. 77.); 
it may proceed from its final to an octave ascending, and 
a major (or minor) third descending; it seldom ascends 
to e, it descends to C, but very rarely to B. 3 ) B flat 
must be used whenever the Tritone is to be avoided, or 
when the melody does not go above si: Example: 
The "Ite Missa est" on Semidoubles (See Birectorium 
chori page 78) and the Communio u JEcce virgo" (Grad. 
Romanwn page 11). 

') Monatshefte fur Musikgeschichte. 4 th year, 1872, page 70. 

2 J "Quod dictum est, ilium habere primam speciem diatessaron, 
intellige, non quod ibi prima ejus species exordiatur, sed quod forma 
et similitudo illius primae, quae inferius (A) est, hie sub earum chor- 
darum dispositione contineatur, tono scilicet et semitonio et tono." 
Berno von Reichenau. 12 th century. 

3 ) "Hie est regula autentum primae maneriae seu moduli deter- 
minans, terminatur in D vel a, et constituitur ex prima specie diapente 
D-a, et prima specie diatessaron a-d. Ejus diapason (ambitus legi- 
timus) est D-d; licentialiter ascendit sed raro ad e, et descendit ad C, 
rarissime vero ad B." St. Bernard. 


Tlie phrase D-a-b-a, recurs times without number 
in Chants of the 1 st tone. Nevertheless in the Hymn, 

Ave Maris stella, the third note — is not to 

A- ve 

be sung as b flat, as the melody immediately proceeds 
to the octave. 

Examples for the different Tones, are in abundance 
in the Graduate and Directorium chori; and the diligent 
student should analyse them and study their peculiarities. 
The Chants of the first Tone are joyous , festive , and 
majestic. 1 ) 

The Second Tone (Ivypodoric) or 1 st Plagal, is also 
made up of the 1 st species of fifth, and 1 st species of 
fourth. "Est hie tonus regida irtagalem primae maneriae 
determinans; finem facit in D vet a." 2 ) It has for its 
final D ; its fifth from D to a; and fourth D to A de- 
scending, and thus forms its octave 

A Btf C D E F G a. 

It sometimes goes down to T gamma, but seldom; 
(see Offertory "Dexter a Domini" page 61. Grad. Rom.) 
It often ascends to the 9 tn ,— b flat; but never to the 10 th 
or 11 th , c or d. In case the Chant proceeds upwards to 
a sixth from the final , then the si takes the accidental 
bflat before it, and must be sung as za\— see the seven 
Antiphons beginning with , preceding the Office of 
Christmas Day. 

The character of the 2 nd Tone is grave and mourn- 
ful, "severe cum majestate tonat." 

The 3 d Tone {phrygian) is constructed from the 2 nd 
species of Diapente, (semitone, tone, tone, tone) and 2 nd 

*) These characteristics of the Tones are not fanciful. The different 
position of the semitone in each of the scales, and the different combina- 
tions of intervals give each Tone a peculiar character. The character- 
istics we give here are taken from old writers such as Guido, Adam 
of Fulda &c. as found in Gerbert, and more fully in Cardinal Bona. 

5 ) St. Bernard. 


species of Diatessaron (semitone, tone, tone). It has E 
for its final, and its legitimate range is to the octave 
e acutum. It may descend to D ; and sometimes even 
to C; e.g. Offertory, "Lmtda" (Grad. Rom. page 257.) 
sed abusive , writes Odo of Climy. Si or b natural 
as the fifth from the final , is o frequent occurrence ; 
u maxime autem ideo, quia ad acutissimam ejus, i. e. e 
diatessaron reddit" But as this fifth has three tones 
in succession, the interval is met with ascending or de- 
scending oftener in skips, than with the intermediate 
notes : u potius saliendo quam gradiendo vadit " The 3 d 
tone is imperious, threatening and characterised by ve- 
hement passion. u Tertius indignatur et acerbo insultat." 
For examples the following may be taken ; the Introits ; 
In nomine Jesu and Sacer dotes tui Domine, {Grad. Bom. 
pages 190 and 47) and the Hymns: Deus tuorum, and 
Te Joseph eelebrent {Vesper ale Bomanum pages [12] 
and 325). 

The fourth Tone (liypophrygian) is similarly con- 
structed from the 2 nd species of fifth and fourth. Its final 
is E or bfc and legitimate range B C D E F G a b$. The 
Chants of this Tone seldom descend to the fourth below 
B, and the want of this half-tone is generally supplied 
by extending the upper part of the scale to c: so that 
its actual ambitus, or range, is from C to c. The si 
above the final is very often changed into za by pre- 
fixing the b flat, as in the Hymn " Virginis Proles'" {Dir. 
chori page [34]), and the Invitatorium " Venite" p. 16*. 

The fourth tone is known as bland sweet and at- 
tractive, u quasi adtdatur et allicii" 


CHAPTER 13th. 


The Fifth Tone (Lydian) takes the third species 
of fifth and fourth. Its Final is F or c and its range 
F-f. The characteristic note of this tone is the si or bi), 
which need only be changed into za or b flat when sung 
with F or fa, in order to avoid the Tritone. This b\ 
natural, gives the fifth tone a spirited majestic and joyful 
character, hence it is called the tonus delectabilis, Imtus, 
jubilcms. This tone is not to be confounded with the 
transposed Ionian mode having a b flat in the signature. 

The fifth and fourth in the sixth Tone (liypolydiari) 
are the same as those used in its authentic fifth Tone. 
Its Final is F, descending to the fourth below, and forms 
the octave scale thus : 

C D E F G a 5 c. 

It may ascend to d, and by degrees, not by skips 
descend from F to C. 

The low pitch of this Tone, and the frequently re- 
curring b flat (to avoid the Tritone) give it the character 
of tenderness and quiet devotion "Sextus laclirymatur 
et plorat." 

The Seventh Tone (mixolydian) comprises the 4 th 
species of JDiapente or fifth, and the 1 st species of JDia- 
tessaron or fourth. Its final is G; and its range G a 
b c d e f g. The si or b\ is natural to it, and espe- 
cially the progression G a \. If a Chant in this Tone 
should not ascend to the octave from the final, compen- 
sation is frequently made by descending a full tone 
below the final. Sometimes we meet with endings on G, 
when b flat has been frequently used in the piece. In 
such cases the 7 th Tone becomes like the 1 st and it will 


be then always better to place b flat in the signature 
and treat it as a transposed tone. 

The seventh tone breathes majesty boldness and joy: 
"imitate progreditur et iniperiose." See the Introit "Piter 
natus" (Grad.Bom. page 30). The Antiphon "JExaudi nos" 
page 73 conveys the impression of strong emotion.- 

The eighth Tone {hypomixolydian) has the same 
species of fifth and fourth as the 7 th . It ranges upwards 
to e, and descends to C. 

The scale of the eighth Tone is like the first. D E 
F G a \ c d; but the melodic phrases and the Finals 
are different in both. The b flat, is not used in the eighth 
Tone so frequently as in the 1 st ; and should any piece 
have it recurring very often and not irregularly , then 
it were better to treat it as the 2 nd Tone transposed, 
having a normal b flat in the signature, as e. g. the 
Hymn "Quern terra, pontus," {Dir. chori page [48]). 

The greatest number of Gregorian melodies are 
written in the eighth tone. *) The old writers consider it 
full of power and manly ; also the tonus narrativus. The 
7 th and 8 th tones are often, especially in long chants, 
mixed ; e. g. the "Lauda Sion." 

Observation. As has been already observed, Chants 
in the 9* h mode, on account of its overstepping the con- 
ventional limits, g, of the Gregorian system, are seldom 
met with; they often appear transposed into the 1st Tone 
with a normal b flat. We frequently meet in the Graduate 
the 10* or hypoaolian tone, made up of the 2«d species of 
fourth and first of fifth e. g. "Hodie scietis" (Grad. Kom.) 
p. 23, "Tecum principium" p. 25, "Requiem ceternam" p. 47*. 
The 13* or Jonic mode (XI) is composed of the 4* h species 

') Probably because most composers of Church Chants wished as 
far as possible' to follow the example of St. Gregory, who commenced 
his Antiphonarium with the Ad te levavi in the 8 th Tone. 


of Diapente and third of Diatessaron; and because of its 
fifth being g , it still more closely resembles our modern 
scale of C major, than the 6 th Tone. In the harmonic com- 
positions of the old Masters the Jonic and its plagal the 
Hypojonic Tones were much employed, especially trans- 
posed to E with b flat in the signature. In Gregorian books 
it is seldom met, as nearly all chants in this mode are 
marked as belonging to the 5 th Tone. In some editions of 
the Gregorian books {Mettenleite?'s Enchiridion page 71) 
there is found a Salve Regina clearly belonging to the 
XL Tone. The Sanctus, Benedictus, and Agnus Dei of the 
Missa de B. M. p. 22* and the Missa p. 33*; as well as 
several chants in the Gradual, especially in the Ordinarium 
Missa?, are in the 11 th Tone transposed an octave lower, 
ranging from C to c. The Antiphons Alma Bedemptoris 
{Dir. c/iori p. 60) and the solemn He missa est (Graduate 
Romanum p. 12) are transposed a fifth lower with b flat 
normal. The Antiphons Ave Begina and Begina Cceli can 
also be considered as the Hypoaolian mode , transposed a 
fifth lower and b flat in the signature. 

CHAPTER 14th. 


Every Tone (modus) of the so-called Sy sterna re- 
gulars, or durum, (because none of the seven diatonic 
scales include a bmolle or flat), may be transposed; 
i. e. raised a fourth higher, or depressed a fifth lower, 
by establishing one I? immediately after the Clef, (as 
we say in modern music, in the signature;) and this 
alteration in pitch of the entire scale, is called the 
Sy sterna transposition, or molle. The 1 st Tone, for 
example, transposed a 4 t]l higher will run thus : G a b 
c d e f g: the relative position of the tones and semi- 
tones remaining unaltered. The notes of these transposed 


scales are called "tuoni finti"\ and the Chant so trans- 
posed Musica ficta. 1 ) 

In ^Gregorian Chant however this kind of transpo- 
sition does not often occur. But it is sometimes met 
with especially in Chants of the I, 2 ) II, XIII (XI) and 
XIV (XII) modes. And whenever a flat is thus estab- 
lished in the signature, that is an indication that the 
tone has been transposed. 

But as all voices have not the same compass, and 
Gregorian is essentially Unison Chant, some arrangement 
of pitch becomes necessary, in order to bring the range 
of the several Tones within the compass af average 
voices. This perhaps will be better understood, by dis- 
playing the extended (2 octave) scale of St. Gregory, 
and then each Tone in its natural place taken out of 
that scale. The letters in large type mark the finals 
and dominants of the Tones i and the circumflex lines 
^ the position of the semitones. 

Scale of 
St. Gregory. 















l*t Tone. 















I 3d „ 
























6th 5j 








; 7th 








; 8th }V) 


e ; f 






') This is not the only signification of Musica ficta; it is also 
used in contrapuntal harmony but in a different sense. 

2 ) In the third line of the verses of the Hymn Jesu Redemptor 
( Vesp. Rom. page 85) several versions place a flat before e-mi. The 
reason of this is that it is the first Tone transposed, and the b there 
is instead of si, (65) to avoid the otherwise occurring Tritone. 


It will be seen from the above schema that only 
two tones, the 1 st and 8 th , lie easily within the compass 
of the generality of voices, i. e. from D to d. So that 
it seldom becomes necessary to transpose or alter the 
pitch of the 1 st or the 8 th Tone. They may be sung 
or played as written. But the 2 nd Tone, and the 7 th 
proceed to the opposite extremes of the extended scale 
and run too low in one instance, too high in the other. 
A medium pitch therefore should be selected so as to 
render all the Tones available for all classes of voices. 
A general rule is to select La or a the dominant of the 
1 st Tone, as a common dominant for all the Tones. For 
example in the 2 nd Tone the dominant is Fa, give that 
the same pitch as La in the 1 st and you thus raise the 
whole scale a major third, its lowest note being then C 
instead of A; and similarly with the other Tones. Another 
rule is to leave the 1 st and 8 th Tones untouched; to 
raise the 2 nd Tone a major third, or even a fourth. 
Lower the 3 d by one Tone, or better still, if the Chant 
does not go up to e leave it untransposed. In the 
4 th Tone if the Chant does not go down to B, it may 
be sung in the natural pitch , otherwise it may be 
raise a Tone. The 5^ is to be transposed a 3 d lower. 
The 6 th a Tone higher; and the 7 th a major third or 
fourth lower. 

However the annexed Table will facilitate all pos- 
sible transpositions with the aid of an instrument and 
make them easier and more secure. It gives the num- 
ber of sharps or flats to be used in each transposition, 
the Finals, Dominants of all, and the under fourths of 
the Plagal Tones. 

The attention of Organists is specially called to this 
Table; as a careful study of it, and practical applica- 
tion, will soon facilitate the otherwise difficult task of 
transposing Gregorian melodies. 


Transpositions of the eight Tones. 

Authentic. Plagal. 



. inant. 

Number of 
j( orb in the 




Number of 
jf or b in the 

Tone pt. 
Fin.D. Dom a. 



' *l 


F(F jf) 
6(6 ft 


a b (a) 
b (bb) 


C (Cjj) 


3 b (4#) 

ib (6 jf) 

a c 


■ s« 
yi ' 


■e " g 




2 # 

2 j, 

3 jt 

6 (6 8) 

b (b tj) 
c (c jf) 

c (C|) 
D(D jf) 

5 b (2 ft) 
3 b (4#) 


© #± 
? ? 



£ B 
*o © 


E (E b) 


btf (bflat) 


5| (2 b) 

E(E b) 
6 (6 b) 

6 8(6) 
bif (b flat) 


B ft (B b) 
D (D b) 
E (Eb) 

5| (2f>) 
2 jf (5 h 
4Jf (3 b)- 

2 Ci 
r* J* 

^ O 
^ (=5 


E(E b) 
D(D b) 

c (cjf) 
b^ (bflat) 
a (a b) 

2 b (5 jf) 

3 # (4 b) 
1 Jf (6 b) 


a(a b) 
E (E b) 

d (d b) 
b (b $ 
a (a b) 

E (E b) 
C (Cjf) 
Bft (Bflat) 

2 jf (5 b) 

2 b (5 jf) 

3 jf (4 b) 

— <3> 

With the assistance of this Table we can not only 
restore a transposed tone to its natural position , but 
raise it or lower by degrees, diatonic or chromatic, ac- 
cording to the requirements of the voices engaged. For 
example a Chant in the VII. Tone must be reduced a 
minor Third. The Final of the 7 th Tone is G ; and the 
Dominant d\ therefore transpose the final a minor third 
lower, and it becomes E, and the Dominant 6 J); and 3 jf 
/ c and g occur in the signature. On the other hand 
a Chant closes in F, it has 3 b (b, e and a flat) in the 
signature, and a flat the Dominant. To what Tone does 
it belong? I look to my Table and find it belongs to 
the 2 nd which has D for a final, F for Dominant, and 
A for the under fourth. 


Observation. Of course it should be borne in mind 
that this Table is only meant to be of service where the 
pitch is taken from a keyed instrument such as an organ, 
Harmonium or Pianoforte, on which chromatic intervals 
(black keys) are found as well as Diatonic (white keys). And 
again Organists and accompanyists of Plain-Chant, not 
thoroughly acquainted with its principles or the nature of 
its Modes, should be careful not to confound the signatures 
rendered necessary by these several transpositions, with 
the like signatures of modern music. For instance, if a 
Chant of the 1st Tone be transposed, so as to require 2 jt 
in the signature ; the accompanyist should never regard it 
as in the Key of D major, or its relative minor. If he do 
so, he will alter the whole character of the melody. In 
the Little Book "Cantica Sacra" of Hauber and Ett, the 
accompaniment to the 1st Tone for Vespers is arranged 
with 2 ft in the signature. That does not mean that we are 
to play in the Key of D major or b^ minor; but simply, 
that the 1 st Tone has been transposed a note higher, hav- 
ing E for its final, and b\ for its Dominant, instead of D 
and a respectively; and the sharps are placed to preserve 
the original position of the semitones. In the accompani- 
ments to the ik Or dinar htm Mis see" arranged by Dr. Witt, 
the Kyrie in Masses of the B. V. M. is written with two 
sharps in the signature. Therefore you will say, it is in 
the key of D, or perhaps b\ minor, especially as I find a 
b in the final chord. It is in neither one key nor the other. 
I look to the final and I find it to be E, I look for the 
dominant or prevailing note and I discover it to be b% 
I then look to the table and ascertain this arrangement 
to be the 1st transposition of the 1st Tone. Consequently 
the semitones fall between the 2nd and 3d degrees and 6th 
and 7th. The Gloria of the same mass is written in 3 sharps, 
it ends on E , has* b \ for a dominant , therefore it is the 
2 n d transposition downwards of the 1^ Tone and neither 
the Key of A major, nor F$ minor. From this it may be 
readily concluded that the accompaniment of Plain-Chant 
is a very different science from that of accompanying music 
in the modern major and minor modes. 

Where the Plain-Chant is unaccompanied or no in- 
strument at hand, then the transposition should be re- 


gulated by the previous rules. Transposition also takes 
place by substituting the i£ fa clef, for the £ Do clef 
or vice versa. 

CHAPTER 15th. 


The word Diesis has had several significations in 
the course of time. The Greeks used it to designate 
the half of the Limma, enharmonic diesis. In a some- 
what analogous sense the musical Theorists of the 12 th 
and 13 th centuries, call diesis every Interval, which by 
mathematical calculation does not make up an exact half- 
tone. 1 ) John de Maris (1300 — 1370) calls the minor 
semitone diesis u Semitonium minus vocatur diesis." This 
signification of it was generally established in the 16 tn 
century and thence to our time, so that every raising of 
the Tone by # and h (this last sign was written # even 
up to the 1 7 th century) was named Diesis. 2 ) 

Except b before Si to avoid the Tritone, no 
other accident, and no other indication of the 

') "Cum aliquis tonus bipartitur propter aliquam consonantiam co- 
lorandam, prima pars toni, sic divisi, si per ascensum fit, major est, 
et vocatur chroma, pars vero, quae restat, diesis dicitur." Marchet- 
tus de Padua (1300). 

*) The Italians even still say ut diesis, and the French ut dieze. 
The English use the word sharp. The Germans ^Yhen they wish to 
designate the sharpening or flattering of a note, instead of saying 
A fiat, C flat, D sharp or F sharp they add a syllable is or es or as to 
the letter expressing the note affected by a musical accident and thus 
they have for, 

English: A sharp, 13 sharp, C sharp, D sharp, E sharp, F sharp, G sharp. 
German: Ais, His, Cis, Dis, Eis, Fis, Gis. 

English: A flat, B Hat, C flat, D flat, E flat, F flat, G flat. 
German: As, B, Ces, Des, Es, Fes, Ges. 


raising or lowering of the Tone, is allowable 
in Gregorian. 

Consequently the sign \ does not exist in pure Gre- 
gorian Chant. The sign if restoring the Si, when pre- 
viously lowered by the i? prefixed to it, to its natural 
sound, is usually marked in modern editions, but it is 
not essential, as, if no Tritone occurs, it should be al- 
ways understood that Si is to be sung natural. 

Many authors rely on certain passages in Gerbert 
Script, and de cantu et mus. sacra, to uphold the use 
of the diesis, and chromatic closes in Plain-Chant. Ab- 
stracting however from the obscurity and ambiguity of 
these passages, both Gerbert, and Coussemacker Tom. II. 
p. 293. especially, bring forward witnesses for the con- 
trary, who to say the least of them, are fully as clear 
and of as great authority as the defenders of the Diesis. 
These are Regino von Prim (A. D. 910) in Gerbert, 
Tom. I. p. 232. Odo of Clung, 1 ) Hucbald &c. Moreover r 
the passage from Aurelian, quoted by Gerbert, in which 
the diesis is defined, says nothing about its use in the dia- 
tonic music of the Church. Mias Salomonis (A. D. 1274), 
quoted also by Gerbert writes "In G non dicitur fa, sed 
recompensatur re"; 2 ) that is to say, )OU cannot construct 

') S. Odo says of it "nimis delicata, vitiosa, maxime lasciviens, 
quod magis corrigi, qiiam imitari oportet." 

-) Ambros in his History of Music is also of opinion that it was 
much later, when forsooth Gregorian Chant and figured Music were 
mixed up, and the latter got the upper hand, that the was used 
with C and F (VII. and VIII. Tones) and even more frequently; any 
one that knows the History of Plain Song must admit the same. In 
the II. vol. p. 155 (Geschichte der Musik) he writes. "So long as Gre- 
gorian Chant, the pure choral Song, was rendered in unison, it is well 
established that none other but the fixed Tones of each Church Mode 
according to the strict Diatonic system were adopted; as soon however 
as they commenced to sing in parts , the difficulties of a strict dia- 
tonic chant began to be felt, and it had to seek the assistance of Me- 
dium Tones." And again in page 51. "The harmonic relations of To- 
nality in the modern sense, have got the mastery over our melodic 
treatment; the Gregorian was independent of them." 


a Hexachord (See Table of Hexachorcls in Chap. 1.) on D, 
because then it would run thus ® f e ffr but you must 
begin a Tone under G, and say £ J? ij* *) 

° ' J ut re mi fa. ' 

Padre Martini {A.D.1784) whose work on Music 
has earned a world-wide reputation, writes. "The Gantus 
"firmus is, according to the testimony of the earliest 
"authors, purely Diatonic. Consequently it receives no 
"colouring from the so-called musical accidents # and b; 
"except when the latter is used from F upwards to avoid 
"theTritone, and downwards to avoid the diminished fifth." 
Baini in his Memorie Storico-Critiche of Palestrina Vol. 
II. pag. 122. complains, that in some of the editions of 
the Choral books capricious alterations had been intro- 
duced, leaving nothing but a mere skeleton of the an- 
cient chant. "Some," he says "dreamt of putting b molle 
"before e {mi) ; and then they should either contradict 
"themselves, or else place it also before a {la)] and so 
"the very nature of Gregorian Chant becomes completely 
"altered; others scattered b molls , and b quadros (tj), 
"and even jf {dieses) recklessly about and thus destroyed 
"almost every vestige of the ancient mode." 

If recourse is had to the masters of the middle ages, 
who in the polyphonous treatment of the Gregorian me- 
lodies frequently use the accidental semitones, it must 
be borne in mind that they never undertook the con- 
struction or arrangement of the entire melody; (and 

l ) Herr Schlecht, in a very closely reasoned paper published 
in the Monatshefte fur Musikgeschichte, 1872. tries to elicit authority 
for the Diesis from a passage in Guide? s Micrologus, where speaking 
of irregular transpositions, he enumerates amongst the blunderers, those 
who "quasdam subductiones faciunt, in trito, quae dieses appellantur" 
But Herr Haberl in the 4 th edition of the "Magister Choralis" published 
1873, says in a foot note, page 52. that he examined the most ancient 
exemplars of Guido's Micrologus in the Vatican Library, in Florence 
and Bologna, compared them with Gerbert's version, and found that 
this sentence was originaly a marginal gloss inserted at least two cen- 
turies later, which subsequently lound its way into the text. 



therefore do not furnish the true version of the Gregorian 
Chant, as such) but only extracted melodic phrases from 
it, on which to establish their polyphonous compositions. 
These very compositions themselves furnish undeniable 
proofs that, even in their time, Gregorian was regarded 
as strictly Diatonic ; for they usually give the Gregorian 
melody or as we would call it, the subject,' — marked 
cantus firmuSy — to the Tenor, or some .other leading 
voice, and leave it there untouched. Then the harmonic 
and contrapuntal effects had to be arranged around that 
in such a manner, as that the full tone might be ex- 
pressed in those places where the defenders of the Diesis 
would now seek to introduce a semitone. 1 ) 

The reproach of unmusical taste, or unscientific de- 
velopment of the same, cannot fairly be urged against 
the supporters of the pure Diatonic system ; for if some 
passages sound hard or even rugged, the fault may be 
traced either to their bad rendering of it to a disregard 
of the Rhythm, or an injudicious organ accompaniment. 

Louis Schneider 2 ) (A. D. 1864) writing to Herr Ober- 
hoffer in Luxembourg said "One thing I must impress 
"upon you; i. e. to banish for ever and aye the Diesis 
"from Gregorian Chant, and fly the cross (the sign # 
"in German is called Kreuz, cross.) as the Devil would. 
"All that has ever been said or may yet be said in its 
"justification is vain, a delusion and a snare. Between 
"music external to the Church, and Liturgical Chant there 
"is and must be an impassable barrier, as great a dis- 
tinction as there is between Heaven and Earth, between 

! ) These remarks can be proved by examples. The Proske Library 
in Ratisbon will furnish rich materials to any one that wishes to study 
this point closely. See also. Witt. Musica Sacra. 1868. page 33 &c. 

2 ) Schneider was a very clever contrapuntist. His rules for har- 
monising Gregorian are most valuable. They were published in 1866 
(Frankfort-Hammacher) and styled "Gregorianische Choralgesiinge" &c. 


"a secular banquet, and the Last Supper. I beseech 
"of you never to be offended with the simple, 
"earnest, strictly diatonic, proscribed, poor 
"garment of Christ, the liturgical Song." 


CHAPTER 16th - 

The Books of the Liturgy , in which the several 
sections of Ecclesiastical Chant may be found, are as 
follows : 

1. The Roman Missal, — Missale Romanum, or 
Mass Book, containing all the Lessons, Gospels, Prayers 
&c. and the Canon of the Mass ; — in a word, all that 
is to be read or sung in the celebration of the Holy 
Sacrifice. The portions of the Liturgy set to musical 
notation in the Missal, are those that appertain to the 
Celebrant, or sacred ministers ; classed under the generic 
term Accentus , to distinguish them from the portions chanted by the choir, called Concentus. 

In furtherance of the Decree of the Council of Trent, 
{24th session,) the sainted Pontiff Pius V., by a Bull dated 
July 24th 1570, ordered, that in the celebration of Mass, 
whether read or solemnly chanted, no other Missal should 
be used, except the one corrected, amended, and restored 
to its pristine dignity, by his authority. "Mandantes omni- 
bus et singulis.... ut missam juxta ritum, modum, ac formam, 
quae per missale hoc , a nobis mine traditur , decantent ac 
leg ant." The Title of this Missal is as follows: "Missale 
Romanum, ex Oecreto Sacrosancti Concilii Tridentini resti- 
tutum, Pii V. Pont. Max. jussu edilum. Romae. Apud haere- 
des Rarlholomaei Falelli, Joannem Variscum et socios." Then 



on the last page we find the date, MDLXX. The correct- 
ion of the Missal was entrusted by Pius V. to Giovanni 
Bernardino Scotti, Cardinal of Trani, and Thomas Goldwell 
Bishop of St. Asaphs, to whom w T as added the priest Gio- 
vanni Guidetti a pupil of Palestrina, who was intimately 
acquainted with the manuscripts of the Vatican Library 
and the archives of the Basilica and inserted the old tra- 
ditional chants of the Preface, Pater wster, Exultet, Gloria 
&c. in the square black notation then in general use. 

Under Sixtus V. a revised edition of this Missal ap- 
peared : Venetiis apud Juntas 1589, and apud Jo. Ant. Pam- 
pagettam (Melch. Sessa) 1589. Under Clement VIII. 1604 
a third improved edition; under Urban VIII, 1634 a fourth, 
and another under Innocent XL 1677. Modern editions are 
reprints of those of St. Pius, Clem. VIII. and Urban VIII. 

2. The Roman Gradual, — Graduale Romanum, 

contains the chants of the Concentus, or those portions 
of the Liturgy of the Mass not to be sung by the Ce- 
lebrant or sacred ministers, but by the Choir. Hence 
in it, we have the Introits, Graduate, Alleluias, Tracts, 
Sequences, Offertories and Communions of the entire Ec- 
clesiastical year, and those proper to the several Festi- 
vals. The name Gradual was originally given to the 
Chant which followed the Epistle, from the fact, as some 
suppose, 1 ) that whilst it was being sung, the Deacon 
stood on the steps (ad gradus) of the Ambo or pulpit, 
preparing to sing the Gospel. The name was subsequently 
extended to the Book containing all the Chants used in 
the celebration of the Holy Sacrifice. 

Pope" Gregory XIII. on the termination of the Jubilee 
year 1575, charged Palestrina 2 ) with the duty of revising 
and correcting the Graduale, so as to bring it into ac- 
cordance with the corrected and amended Missal. He 

') Vide Otto Kornmiiller "Lexikon der hirchlichen Torikunsf under 
the word "Graduale." 

2 ) Giovanni Pierluigi da Palestrina, born 1524, died on the Feast 
of the Purification 2 nd of February 1594, in the arms of his confessor 
St. Philip Neri; justly styled the "Prince of Music/' 


worked at this arduous task for several years, but had 
only completed the revision of that portion called the 
"Proprium de Tempore" before his death. Whilst Palestrina, 
assisted by his pupil Guidetti, were thus engaged, there 
appeared in 1580, published at Venice by Peter Liechten- 
stein a Patrician of Cologne two folio volumes , one being 
the Antiphonary, and the other, the Graduale; both 
corrected and noted in conformity with the new Roman 
Missal and Breviary of St. Pius V. The editor is unknown, 
and the authority by which it was issued is equally un- 
known, but the prolonged neumas, and superabundant notes, 
which Palestrina was commanded to reduce, were preserved 
in this edition. It was not until the year 1615, under Pope 
Paul V. that a regular official edition of the Gradual was 
issued from the Medicaean printing offices in Rome. Baini 
supposes Ruggiero Giovanelli, — who succeeded Palestrina 
as Chapel Master to the Vatican Basilica, — to have su- 
perintended its publication, and pronounces it to be the 
best. By order of Pius IX., this same edition, enriched with 
chants for the new festivals, has been reproduced in splendid 
form by HerrPnstet of Ratisbon, and strongly recommended 
by His Holiness and the Sacred Congregation of Rites, it 
is being gradually introduced into every country. The other 
editions of the Gradual deserving special mention, are Ant- 
werp, 1599. Ingolstadt, 1618. Venice 1652. Mechlin 1848, 
and the Reims and Cambray edition published by Lecoffre 
of Paris. 

3. The Pontificate Romaimm , a book containing % 
the several functions proper to a Bishop. 

The edition under Clement VIII. 1596 serves as a 
standard for all subsequent issues; such as Antwerp. 1627 
and 1663. Rome 1646. 1658. 1752. Venice 1770. 1772. 
1786; and the recent edition of the Propaganda print- 
ing office. 

The Ceremoniale Episcoporum serves a like pur- 
pose and contains most of the decrees of the Sacred Con- 
gregation, appertaining to Episcopal functions. Recently 
a Commentarium by Aloisio Prolo , has been published by 
Pustet, containing several recent decrees of the Sacred 


4. The Rituale Romanum, — or Roman Ritual, 
for the administration of the Sacraments, the burial 
service &c. 

It was first edited under Paul V. 1614, and enlarged by 
Benedict XIV. The most recent edition of the Roman Ritual 
has been published, with the approbation of the Sacred 
Congregation of Rites, by Herr Pustet of RatisbOn 1872. 

Several portions of the Ritual are extracted there- 
from, and published separately for greater convenience; 
such as the Processionale Romanum; of which anew 
edition has just appeared (Ratisbon). Before the reform 
of the Liturgical Books, the Sacerdotale, or Liber 
Sacerdotalis, (Venetiis per Melch Sessas et Petrum de 
Ravanis socios 1523, and Venetiis, Petri Liechtenstein Agrip- 
pinensis 1567) was found useful but has now become ob- 
solete. The extract, however, that will be found most ge- 
nerally in demand, is the Exequiale Romanum, or 
Ordo Exequiarum, containing the Mass and Office of 
the Dead, and the ceremony of Interment, published in 
1872 by Herr Pustet, with the approval of the Sacred 

5. The Antiphonarium Romanum, — or Roman 
Antiphonary, contains all the chants for the several 
portions of the Divine Office ; — the Antiphons at Matins, 
Lauds , Vespers ; the Invitatories , Responses , Psalm- 
tones, &c. just as the Graduale contains the Chants for 
the Mass. 

The old editions are: Antwerp. 1573, 1611; Ingolstadt 
1630; Venetiis 1503, 1554, 1580, 1645, 1652, 1695, 1701. 
The new official edition about to be published in Folio by 
Herr Pustet, will be a reprint with the addition of the new 
offices, of the Liechtenstein edition. Baini, speaking of the 
reform of the Liturgical Books entrusted to Palestrina, 
says of the Antiphonaries then in use, that they did not 
suffer much from the transcriptions of the amanuenses. 
The antiphons, he says, were almost all intact, as also the 
hymns; and the Psalm tones alike in all the manuscripts; 
so that the -correction of it was more a re-setting of the 
words of the amended Breviary, than a profound effort of 


musical scholarship, and for that reason the Liechtenstein 
edition, which appeared with the amended text, while Pa- 
lestrina was engaged on the Gradual, served all the pur- 
poses of Gregory XIIIs reform, and is regarded as a stan- 
dard edition. In the new Ratisbon edition, the 2nd vol. con- 
taining that portion of the Office in most general use; — 
i.e. Vespers, will appear first. (Already an octavo edition 
has been published ; — Vesperale Romanum.) The 1st vol. 
containing Matins, Lauds, &c. will follow. This latter por- 
tion of the Office is rarely heard now, except in cloisters, 
and on the Vigil of Christmas, and during Holy Week. For 
this reason separate editions of the Officium Nativita- 
tis D.N.J. C. in 8vo, and Officium majoris Hebdomadae, 
have been issued by the indefatigable publishing firm in 

6. In the Psalterium Romanum chorale, — we 

have the Psalms of the Officium de tempore, for the 
week; as also the Hymns for the entire year, and the 
Officium Defunctorum. 1 ) In many instances the Hymns 
were published separately on large folio sheets. 2 ) 

7. The Directorium Chori, the standard text book 
for all the Intonations , for Priests , sacred Ministers, 
Chanters &c. 

Giovanni Guidetti brought it out in 1582, under the 
following title. "Directorium chori ad usum sacro-sanctae 
basilicae Vaticanae, et aliarum cathedralium et collegiatarum 
ecclesiarum collectum opera Joh. Giudetti Bononiensis, ejus- 
dem Vaticanae basilicae clerici beneficiati, et SS. I). N. Gre- 
gorii XIII, capellani, permissu Superiorum, Romae ap. Rob. 
Granjou. Parisien. 1582." It was the first result of the united 
labours of Palestrina and Guidetti. The reception which 
this 1 st edition met with, by reason of its clear method, 
correct notation, and general usefulness, soon necessitated 

') The noteworthy editions are; Antwerp, 1609, 1611, 1664; Borne, 
1678; Salzburgh 1683; Venice 1606, 1656, 1751 &c. 

2 ) Such editions are found in Venice, 1644, 1675, 1724; Antwerp, 
1644; Salzburgh 1684. The harmonised (counterpoint) work of Palestrina 
"Hymni totius anni" &c. Romae 1589, and that of Vittoria 1581, were 
of the greatest service in correcting the music of the Hymns themselves. 


two other editions, one in 1589, and another in 1600. 1 ) 
In this Hand book or Manual, with which every Eccle- 
siastical Student should be provided, we have all the in- 
tonations of Psalms for the entire year, for the several 
Venite exultemus, Ver sides, Epistles, Gospels, Te Deum, 
Prayers, Litanies, Gloria, Ite missa est &c. The new edition 
issued by Pustet contains moreover the text of all the 
psalms in full, the melodies of the Hymns for the year, 
and the chants for the new Feasts. This Book we consider 
to be almost indispensable, and certainty most useful. 

Both the Directorium diori, and the Officium major-is 
Hebdomadae, just issued by Pustet, are faithful reprints of 
Guidetti ; the only alteration being the disuse of the notae 
coronatae , and the adoption of the simpler forms, — the 
longa, brevis and semibrevis. See foot note. 

CHAPTER 17th. 


I. The Ecclesiastical year, is divided into three 
principal seasons, and all days and hours of these sea- 
sons , are a proximate or remote, anterior or posterior 
celebration of the three great central festivals ; Christ- 
mas, Easter and Pentecost. The most proximate 
anterior celebration is the Vigil, which is only found 
with the older festivals , and not with those of compa- 
ratively recent date; (such as Corpus Christi, and the 
Feast of St. Joseph &c.) The most proximate posterior 

l ) B. Gio Francesco Massani re-published the Directorium with 
slight additions, Borne 1604, Nicolo Stamegna in 1665, with several 
additions; and after various other editions D. Francesco Pelichiari, of 
Monte Cassino, and master of Gregorian Chant to the German College 
in Borne, published in 1737 the most recent up to the present time, 
in which he abolished the square notes with the semicircle and dot 
over them, and retained only the longa, breve and semibreve. 


celebration is the octave, which closes on the eighth 
day after the Festival. 

The remote anterior and posterior celebrations of 
the three central Feasts, are the Sundays with their 
intervening Ferias, or Week-days. What the octave 
is to the Festival, the Feria is to the preceding Sunday. 
If the latter be ranked high so also are the subsequent 
Feriae; and hence we have feriae majores and minores. 
To the first-mentioned belong, the feriae (or week-days) 
of Advent and Lent ; the Wednesdays, Fridays and Satur- 
days of Quarter tense, and the Rogation days. 

Between the three great central festivals, other Feasts 
of our Blessed Lord, of the Blessed Virgin and of the Saints 
and Angels are inserted during the course of the year. 

The Ecclesiastical year begins with the 1 st Sunday 
of Advent. In the week following the 3 d Sunday we 
have the l 8t Quarter tense; and after the 4 th Sunday 
the Vigil of Christmas, then the Feast of Christmas, and 
a succession of Feasts with Octaves. The octave day of 
Christmas is the 1 st of January; — feast of the Circum- 
cision of our Lord. On the 6 th of January we celebrate 
the Fpiphania Domini, or his manifestation to the Gen- 
tiles ; and then follows the closing of the first great fest- 
ival with the Sundays after Ejnphany (Dom. post Fpiph.) ; 
the number of which is regulated b t > the time of Easter ; 
it is sometimes more, sometimes less, but never can ex- 
ceed six. 

The remote preparation for the Festival of Easter 
commences with Septuagesima Sunday, (70 th day before 
Easter) it includes Sexagesima, Quinquagesima and con- 
tinues up to Ash- Wednesday, (Feria IV. Cinerum) when 
the Church enters on the 40 days Fast (Quadragesima). 
Between the 1 st and 2 nd Sunday of Lent, we meet the 2 nd 
Quarter-tense. After four Sundays, Passion-tide follows 
commencing with Passion-Sunday (Dominica Passionis); 


the week following being called Passion-week, and then 
Palm- Sunday (Dominica Palmarum) , commencing Holy 
Week (Hebdomadas major); during which, Holy Thurs- 
day (Feria V. in Coena Domini), Good Friday (Feria VI. 
in Parasceve), and Holy Saturday (Sabbatum Sanctum) 
are specially solemnized. Easter (Pascha) has its octave, 
which closes on Loiv Sunday {Dominica in albis), and 
then 4 Sundays follow. After the 4 th Sunday (or 5 th 
after Easter), we meet the Bogation days, and Ascension 
Thursday, and on the 50 th day after Faster; — Whit- 
Sunday or Pentecost (Dominica Pentecostes) ; for which 
the days from Ascension day to the Yigil , including 
Sunday within the Octave (Domin. infra Octavam Ascen- 
sionis), serve as an immediate preparation. 

The Octave of Pentecost includes the 3 d Quarter tense, 
and closes on Trinity Sunday (Festum SS. Trinitatis). 
On the Thursday immediately following Trinity Sunday, 
the Church celebrates the Feast of Corpus Christi (Festum 
SS. Corp. Clwisti), or Feast of the Most Holy Sacrament, 
which has an Octave, and then follow the Sundays after 
Pentecost, in regular succession to the number of 23; 
(the 4 th Quarter tense occurring in September). Should 
there be more than 24 Sundays, between Pentecost and 
Advent, then after the 23 d Sunday, are inserted such 
Sundays after Epiphany, as could not be celebrated in 
their proper season, by reason of the proximity, of Easter; 
commencing with the 3 d Sunday after Epiphany, if there 
be 28; with the 4 th if only 27; and soforth. The last 
Sunday after Pentecost (marked XXIV and ultima) 
terminates the Ecclesiastical year. 

The Festivals or Feasts occurring between these 
three central Feasts, have not all the same rank or dig- 
nity , and consequently are not celebrated with equal 
solemnity. The Liturgy classifies them as simples 
(simplicia), semidoubles (semiduplicia), and doubles; 


the last mentioned are again divided into doubles of 
the 1 st class {dupl. I. classis) and doubles of the 2 nd 
class (dupl. II. classis), greater doubles and lesser 
doubles (duplicia major a et minora). The lesser doubles 
are marked in the calendar with the abbreviated word 
dupl. (duplex) ; the others are specially indicated. 

Every country or Diocese has moreover certain na- 
tional or local Feasts, which are indicated in the Calendar 
specially, and quoted as from the Office proper to such 
country or Diocese ; e.g. ex proprio Hibernice, ex proprio 
Anglice etc. (from the proper of Ireland, or from the 
proper of England, &e.) 

II. The Ecclesiastical Calendar, or "Ordo re- 
citandi officium divinum Missamque celebrandif is a 
book necessary for every priest, that he may know the 
Office and Mass to be said every day in the year. We 
would also add, that wherever the music in the Church 
is conducted according to the requirements of the Liturgy; 
(and there is no place where such ought not to be the 
case) every Organist or Choir Master, should likewise 
be provided with it, and familiarized with its use. On 
the Continent of Europe, each Diocese has its own spe- 
cial Calendar or Or do; but in Ireland, England and 
Scotland, and the United States of America, a general 
Ordo for the whole country is compiled each year ; those 
feasts which are specially celebrated in particular dio- 
ceses or localities, being indicated in smaller type. More- 
over, as Organists and Choir Masters are not generally 
conversant with the Latin language and Latin termino- 
logy; editions in English of the Ordo are published in 
Dublin, 1 ) London 2 ) and New York, thus removing all ex- 

') Irish' Catholic Directory, Almanac and Registry; with the com- 
plete Ordo in English. A. D. 1876. Dublin, John Mullany 1 Parliament 

8 ) The Catholic Directory Ecclesiastical Register and Almanac. 
1*70. London, Burns & Oates. 


cuse from those, who should study to have the Music 
of the Church, conformable to the Church's spirit and 

The Ecclesiastical Calendar begins with the civil year 
on the 1 st of January (the date of the 1 ?t Sunday of Ad- 
vent, the proper commencement of the Ecclesiastical year, 
being variable). The order of Feasts is regulated by the 
time of Easter; for, according as Easter occurs, Septua- 
gesima Sunday , Ash Wednesday , Ascension Thursday, 
Pentecost, Corpus Ghristi, and the 1 st Sunday of Advent, 
are determined. These Feasts consequently, are styled 
movable Feasts (Festa mohilia). The several Direc- 
tories or Ordos published, whether in Latin or English, 
use abbreviations to indicate the rank of the Feast, the 
Office, to be said whether proper or common, the colour 
of the vestments &c. ; a key to which abbreviations is 
generally found at the beginning or end of the book. 
By way of example, let us take Mullany's Directory for 
1876 and at the top of Page 49, we find, April 25. 
Tuesday, — St. Mark the Evang.; {Evangelist) doub., 
2 nd cl. (double of the 2 nd class) 11. nn. prop, {lessons in 
the noctums proper). In Mass Protexisti me Deus (prop.): 
— (i.e. the Mass is to be found in the Missal or Gradual 
amongst the Proper of Saints) , creed, pref. (preface) of 
apostles. In 2 nd vesp. (vespers) com. of. foil, (commemo- 
ration of the following feast] — i. e. SS. Cletus and Mar- 
cellinus). Then towards the right hand margin of the 
page, we meet the letter B which stands for rubrum (red) 
indicating the colour of the vestments to be worn. An 
Alphabetical list at the end of this book will furnish an 
explanation of most of the contractions used in the Latin 
or English Directories. 


CHAPTER 18th. 


I. The Missale Bomanum is divided into six prin- 
cipal sections ; so also the Graduate Bomanum, namely : 
1) Proprium de Tempore contains the Masses for all 
Feasts, Sundays and Ferias of the regular Ecclesiastical 
year (tempus) from the 1 st Sunday of Advent to the last 
after Pentecost. Between Easter Saturday and Easter 
Sunday, the 2) Ordo Missce with the Canon of the Mass 
is inserted. 1 ) 3) The Proprium Missarum de Sanctis, or 
special formulas for the Feasts of the B.Y. M. the Saints, 
Angels &c. ; from the 29 th of September {Vigil of St. 
Andrew the Apostle), to the 26 th of November, Feast of 
St. Peter of Alexandria. As most Feasts of Saints, even 
to the smallest Prayers and versicles, have fixed formulas 
in common; so the 4 th section contains the Commune San- 
ctorum, or Common of Saints, which is thus subdivided. 

a) In Vigilia unius Apostoli (on the Vigil of an Apostle). 

b) Commune unius Martyris Pontificis (common of a Mar- 
tyr who was also Bishop) ; with two different formulas ; 

c) Commune unius Martyris non Pontificis (common of a 
Martyr not a Bishop , with two forms) ; d) Commune 
Martyrum tempore Paschali. De uno Martyre (Feast of 
one Martyr in Paschal time, i. e. from Low Sunday to 
Pentecost) ; e) De pluribus Martyribus temp. Pasch. (of 
many martyrs in Paschal time) ; f) Commune plurium 
Martyrum extra temp. Paschale (of many martyrs outside 
of Paschal time); g) Commune Confessoris et Pontificis 
(common of a Confessor and Bishop, with two different 

') Ordo Missae indicates that portion of the Liturgy of the Mass 
which is unchangeable. In the Graduate the regular Chants for the 
Kyrie, Gloria, Sanctus, Benedictus and Agnus Dei (Credo) are found 
at the end of the volume under the title "Ordinarium Missae." 


Masses) ; h) Commune Doctorum (Common of Doctors) ; 
i) Commune Conf. non Pontificis (Common of a Confessor 
not a Bishop, with two Masses) ; k) Missa pro Abbatibus 
(a Mass for Abbots) ; 1) Commune Virginum. Pro Virgine 
et Martyre (for a Virgin and Martyr, three Masses); 
m) Pro Virgine tantum (for a Virgin only, two formulas) ; 
n) Commune non Virginum. Pro una Mart, non Virg. 
(for a Martyr not a Virgin) ; o) Pro nee Virg. nee Mart. 
(for neither Virgin nor Martyr, e. g. holy widows) ; p) In 
Anniversario Dedicationis Ecclesice (the anniversary of 
the Dedication of a Church). 

Then follows the 5 th section, the Votive Masses 1 ) 
(Missce votivce)] first for each day of the week; — for 
Monday in honour of the Holy Trinity, or for the Dead; 2 ) 
for Tuesday in honour of the Holy Angels ; for Wednes- 
day in honour of the Holy Apostles SS. Peter and Paul; 
for Thursday, in honour of the Blessed Sacrament; for 
Friday, in honour of the Holy Cross or Passion of our 
Saviour; and for Saturday in honour of the Blessed Virgin ; 
this last with 5 different formulas according to the dif- 
ferent seasons of the Ecclesiastical year. 3 ) After these 
come 13 Votive Masses for particular objects, e.g. the 
election of a Pope, for the Sick, for Peace, for a Bride 
and Bridegroom &c. The 6 th section finally, embraces 
the Festivals for particular places {Festa pro aliquibus 
locis), which are not celebrated by the universal Church, 
going from the 7 th of December, to the 29 th of November. 
As an Appendix or Supplement to the Missal or Gra- 
dual, we meet in the end, the proper for each Diocese 

') " Votive masses, are so called, because celebrated for some spe- 
cial purpose of impetration, thanksgiving or praise." Amberger Pasto- 
raltheologie, II. Bd. p. 241. 

2 ) The Missa pro Defunctis is found in the Missal last of all the 
Votive masses, and in the Gradual at the end of the Ordinar. Missae. 

3 ) From Advent to Christmas, from Christmas to the Purification, 
from the Purification (Feb. 2 nd ) to Easter, from Easter to Pentecost, 
from Pentecost to Advent. 


or country, e. g. Proprium Hibernim , containing the 
Masses for the Irish Saints, whose Feasts may not be 
solemnized by the Church at large, but who are spec- 
ially honoured in Ireland. 

II. The Breviary, and also the Directorium Chori 
and the extract for Vespers (Vesperale Bomanum) have 
exactly the same arrangement as the Missal. Before the 
Proprium de Tempore (and instead of the Ordo and 
Canon in the Missal), we find the Psalterium Bomanum 
disposition per Hebdomadam or Psalms, portioned out 
to each day of the week ; and instead of the 5 th section 
of the Missal {the votive masses), we have in the Bre- 
viary, the Office of the B. V. M., the Office for the Bead, 
the Litany of the Saints &c. Each day has its own 
Matins, Lauds, and canonical hours: Prime, Terce, Sext 
and None, Vespers and Complin. These several portions 
of the Divine Office will be more fully explained in 
subsequent chapters. At the end of the Birectorium 
Chori, the fixed Chants and Intonations for the Psalms, 
Versicles &c. are collected together under the rubric 
u Commune Birectorii." 


CHAPTER 19th. 


The highest and most solemn act of the Catholic 
Liturgy, ("Ufoog" and "tyyov" et public tvork") is, un- 
questionably, the Most Holy Sacrifice of the Mass. 
It is the very centre point of her worship, and every 


thing else is subordinate^ grouped around it. Hence 
every movement in its celebration, whether private or 
solemn, is carefully provided for by a code of rules, 
called rubrics, which have all the force of law, and bind 
under sin. Music or singing, is in no sense essential to 
the Holy Sacrifice as stick; and for chant or music, during 
the celebration of private or Low Mass, the Liturgy 
makes no provision. 1 ) But for the solemn 2 ) celebration 
of Mass , singing is indispensable , and the rubrics do 
not allow such solemn celebration, where the Chant is 
not adequately provided for. Again, the Chant which 
should accompany the solemn celebration of the Holy 
Sacrifice, is essentially an alternated or antiphonal chant, 
in imitation, as Witt says {Fliegende Blatter an. II. N° 
3 and 4) of the Seraphim crying one to another, and 
saying, "Holy, Holy, Holy, the Lord God of Hosts, all 
the earth is full of his glory." (Isais cap. vi.) The Cele- 
brant intones the Gloria or Credo, and the Choir an- 
swers him and sings the remainder of the Text. So that 
the Celebrant who sings the Gloria, Preface, &c. the 
Deacon who sings the Gospel, the Subdeacon who sings 
the Epistle and the Choir singing its part, are all quid 
unum et idem, one and the same, liturgically con- 
sidered ; and all should combine to carry out the repeated 
injunction of the Sacred Congregation of Rites, that Mass 
should be said or sung, prout jacet in Missali; — as 
it is found in the Missal ; nor is it lawful for the Cele- 

') The custom prevailing in most parts of Ireland and elsewhere, 
of having Music or singing, whether congregational, or by a trained 
Choir, during Low Mass on Sundays and Festivals, is not contemplated 
by the Liturgy. Nevertheless it is not a custom to be condemned, pro- 
vided the music be of a character calculated to edify the faithful and 
help devotion, and not, as too often is the case, "a cheap concert at 
one end of the Church, while Mass is being celebrated at the other" 

2 ) Solemn Mass is of two kinds, viz: the Missa Cantata, without 
Deacon or Subdeacon, where the Celebrant alone sings the Accentus; 
and solemn High Mass, with the sacred ministers. 


brant, Deacon, Subdeacon or Choir, to omit or abbrev- 
iate any portion of the Sacred Rite. 1 ) 

In the Missal, the commencement of Mass is, — 
I. The Introit, (Introitus, entrance), — and not the 
Kyrie. 2 ) The I n t r o i t is an antiphonal 3 ) Chant, compris- 
ing an Antiphon, one verse of a Psalm, and the Doxo- 
logy or Gloria JPatri; 4 ) after which the Antiphon is re- 
peated. 5 ) At Easter, and during Paschal Time, the 
antiphon of the Introit is terminated by a double Alle- 
luia; which will be found, with a suitable modulation 
for each mode, at pages 70* and 71* of the Gradual 
(8 V0 edition)] and pages 113* and seqq., Vol. II. of the 
Folio edition. 

Observation I. The Introit was introduced into the 
Liturgy by Pope Celestine I. (A. D.432) who ordered that 
the Psalms of David should be sung antiphonally before 
Mass. St. Gregory the Great ordered one Psalm to be 
sung whilst the Sacred ministers were proceeding from 
the Sacristy, and entering the Presbyterium; (hence Introi- 
tus) and that one verse of such Psalm should be selected 

') In a "communicated'' article of the Catholic Church Music pe- 
riodical "Cecilia" {Fischer. Bros. New York) 3* yearN°.3; the follow- 
ing remarks occur. "An ordinary organist assisted by a few singers 
of moderate abilities and immoderate pretensions, can have things 
pretty much their own way. The priest, the congregation and the 
Mass itself, are all subordinate to them. The Introit, Gradual, Offertory 
and other essential parts of the Mass are entirely ignored, while the 
Kyrie, Gloria <fec. are brought out in a carnival of harmony ... Is not 
this in direct opposition to the spirit of the Church." _____ 

2 ) The Sacred Congregation of Rites declared the omission of the 
Introit by the choir, to be an abuse that should be removed. "Abusus 
quod in Missis cum cantu praetermittatur cantus Introitus &c. . . . tolla- 
tur." S. R. C. 11. Sept. 1847. 

3 ) i.e. To be chanted alternately by two choirs, or two divisions 
of a choir. 

4 ) During Passion Time, i. e. from Passion Sunday to Holy Thurs- 
day inclusive, and in Masses of the Dead, the Gloria Patri is omitted. 

We are not supposing the presence of an organ. The. rule in 
this latter case will be given further on. 



to serve as an Antiphon and be sung before and after the 
Psalm, as at Vespers ; such Psalm and Antiphon being se- 
lected, as would seem most appropriate to the Feast cele- 
brated. Since the 8 th century, if not earlier, the custom 
prevails to sing 1 st the Antiphon, 2 nd one verse, instead of 
the entire Psalm, 3 d the Gloria Patri and then repeat the 
Antiphon. As e. g. in the Introit for 1st Sunday of Advent, 
we have for Antiphon "Ad te levavi" ; consisting of the two 
first verses of the 24 th Psalm : then the Psalm-verse, being 
the 4 th of the same Psalm, and finally the Gloria Patri, with 
the Antiphon repeated. In the commencement the Anti- 
phons were selected from the Psalms, later on some were 
taken from other appropriate portions of Scripture, and some 
again such as "Salve sancta parens" (Sedulins), and "Gau- 
deamus omnes in Domino" belong not to Scripture. In the 
Missal (and Gradual) there is a special Introit for every 
day and every Feast in the year, except for Holy Satur- 
day and the High Mass of the Vigil of Pentecost. On these 
days as the Litany of the Saints is chanted whilst pro- 
ceeding from the Baptismal Font to the Altar, the Con- 
cluding Kyries of the litany serve as the Kyries of the 
Mass, and no Introit, in the usual sense, is provided. 

On Ferias (week-days) and simple Feasts (simplicia) 
one Chorister 1 ) intones the Introit and sings alone up to 
the 1 st upright line or bar drawn across the stave EEjEE; 
on semidoubles and Sundays (when the Mass is of the 
Sunday , and not the Feast of a Saint &c.) two chor- 
isters chant the Intonation; on Feasts of greater rank 
and solemnity, three or four intone the first word; 
and then the entire Choir falls in, and sings the Anti- 
phon right through till they meet the double bar, 
and the Psalm verse indicated by the red letters Fs. 
preceding. The first half of this verse down to the 
colon; and of the Gloria Patri, is sung by one or more 
choristers as above directed; the full choir responding 

') Vide the Directions for using the Gradual printed in the com- 
mencement of the new Ratisbon edition. 


with the remaining half. The time for commencing to 
sing the Introit is when the Celebrant has reached the 
Altar steps and commences Mass; 1 ) and the music of 
the Introit should be Gregorian , even when the other 
portions of the Mass are sung to harmonised music. 2 ) 

II. The Introit is followed immediately by the Kyrie 
(ter — i.e. three times repeated), Christe (ter) and Kyrie 
(ter). In the Missa de B. M. V. the triple Kyrie and 
Christe have the melodies varied. 

Observation II. The Introduction of the Kyrie elei- 
son from the Greek into the Latin Liturgy is attributed 
by some to Pope Sylvester, by others to Pope Damasus. 
The number of repetitions was different at different periods, 
it was finally settled in the Roman Liturgy that the re- 
petitions should be nine in number. Kyrie thrice, in ho- 
nour of God the Father; Christe thrice in honour of God 
the Son; and Kyrie again thrice in honour of the Holy 
Spirit. The melody of the first Kyrie is generally identi- 
cal with that of the Ite Missa Est, or Benedicamns prescri- 
bed for same day or Feast. After the 12th century the 
custom grew of interpolating other words between the 
Kyries; as in a Missal printed in Paris A. D. 1519 we 
have "Kyrie eleison Pater infantium; Kyrie eleison Refector 
lactentium;" and also in a Missal published in 1631, but it 
is accompanied by the following rubric iC nullo modo sunt 
de or dinar io sen usu Romano." These interpolations were 
called Tropes, but since the corrected Missal of Pius V. 
they have never been tolerated. 

Observation IK. In the Graduate Romanum under 
the rubric Ordinarium Missae, we find the regularly re- 

l ) Cum vero Episcopus pervenerit ante infimum gradum altaris... 
cessat sonitus organorum, et chorus incipit Introitum. Cerem. Episc. 
Lib. II. cap. VIII. 

*) Sometimes harmonised arrangements are met with for the words 
of some Introits. but such are very few; and it is more in keeping 
with the spirit of the Church that this portion at least of the Liturgy 
should be sung in Plain-Chant. It is no excuse on the part of the 
Choir to say they do'nt know Plain-Chant; no Church choir, properly 
so called, should be ignorant of it. 



curring chants for the Kyrie, Gloria, Credo, Sanctus, Bene- 
dictus and Agnus Dei, arranged according to the rank or 
character of the Ecclesiastical Seasons and Feasts; follow- 
ing the same order that the lie Missa Est, and Benedica- 
mus Domino preserve in the Missal: in all, 13 Masses or 
Mass Chants, and the Mass for the Dead, As Easter is 
the greatest festival, the first in order is the Mass to be 
used on week days from Holy Saturday to Saturday in 
albis (inclusive). Then the Gregorian Mass for the most 
solemn Festivals (festa solemnia). Every Choir-Master who 
has the object of the Liturgy at heart, should become ac- 
quainted with and understand the Directory, or Ordo; and 
learn from it the rank or solemnity of the Feast, so as to 
choose the Mass specially appointed for it. The third Mass 
is for festivals of high rank, though not the highest {festa 
duplicid), which as occasion suits, may be varied with the 
fourth. The fifth and sixth Masses are exclusively for 
Festivals of the B. Y. M.; which may be either solemnia > 
duplicia, or semiduplicia. The Ordo for each year and lo- 
cality determines the rank of each. 

If on any Sunday throughout the year (except the 
Sundays of Lent and Advent) the Office and Mass be of 
the Sunday, and not of the B. Y. M. or any Saint; then 
the seventh Mass {in Dominicis infra annum) is to be sung. 

On Feasts of Saints {semidoubles), the eighth Mass is 
used. On semidoubles {ferias) within Octaves, (not Octaves 
of the B.Y. M.), and when the office is, de die infra Octa- 
vam, the ninth Mass is employed. The tenth Mass is 
for simple Festivals (ritu simplici). In the present arrange- 
ment of the Calendar they occur very seldom. 

On Ferias {work-days) throughout the year, except 
during Advent and Lent, the eleventh Mass is used. On 
the Sundays of Advent and Lent {Septuagesima to Quin- 
quagesima not included), the twelfth Mass; and on the 
Ferias of Advent and Lent the thirteenth. 

Then comes the Mass for the Dead {pro Defunctis) 
which is given entire, from the Introit to the Besponsorium 

III. The Gloria, or Hymn of the Angels, is then 
intoned by the Priest, if the rubric prescribe it. The 


Priest sings the words "Gloria in excelsis Deo" and the 
Choir take up immediately with the words "Et in terra 
pax" 1 ) and sing all 2 ) the words right through to the end. 

The following are the various Intonations to be used 
by the Celebrant according to the rank of the Festival. 

Toni "Gloria." 

1.) In Festis solemnibus et duplicibus. 
cdf e f g e 

G16-ri-a in ex-cel-sis De - o. 

In this Intonation there is a fall of a semitone from 
the syllable a to in; consequently it is a mistake to 
sing in to the note fa. 

2.) In Missis B. Marice (also in Votive Masses of 
the B.Y. M. on Christmas Day, Corpus Clwisti, and dur- 
ing their octaves). 

gag fg g a h^c ag efg 

G16 -*ri-a in ex-cel-sis De - o. 

The full tone Sol-fa (g-f), and the Semitone mi-fa 
(e-f) should be well fixed on the ear. 

3.) In Dominicis festis semiduplicibus, et infra Octavas, 
quae non sunt B. Marice. 

dgfefg fe d e w f e d 

G16 - ri - a in ex-cel-sis De-o. 

') It is consequently unrubrical for the choir to repeat the words 
Gloria &c, though in most modern concerted masses, this is con- 
stantly done. 

? ) S. JR. C. 5. Julii 1631; 11. Sept. 1847 &C. 


-i i 

4.) In Festis simplicibus. 1 ) 

G16-ri-a in ex- eel -sis De-o. 
The minor third mi-sol (e-g) should never be sung 
as if major (e-g jf). The Gloria is not sung on the Sun- 
days of Lent and Advent. 

CHAPTER 20th. 


The Directorium CJiori sets forth very clearly the 
several chants for the Prayers under the rubric Toni 
orationum ; however we think it well to be most explicit 
on this point, as it is too often overlooked. The prayers 
may be sung in three ways in Tonus festivus, simplex 
ferialis, and ferialis. 

I. Tonus festivus. 

The Prayers should be sung in Festive tone, quando 
officium est duplex, vel semiduplex, vel de Dominica in 
Matutinis, Missis 2 ) et Vesperis. His exceptis sem- 
per dicuntur in Tono feriali. 

This festive tone is monotonic admitting of two in- 
flections or "Accents;" the 1st fa-mi-re-fa called the 
punctum principals; the 2 nd fa -mi, called the semipun- 
ctum. The punctum principale is employed at that break 
in the prayer, where the sense of the words marks off 

') This is also used in Votive Masses de Angelis, in masses pro 
parvulis defunctis, and on the Ferias of Paschal time, when de ea. 
Baini mentions that the praxis in the Pontifical chapel is, on all oc- 
casions, to use the solemn intonation, N° 1. 

2 ) Etiam in Laudibus et Missis votivis sol em nib us fob causam 
gravem et publicam, et frequentiam popidi). 


a section or clause; in other words, where a colon or 
semicolon occurs ; or sometimes in the new editions of 
Liturgical Books, where even a comma completes the 
clause. This inflection should always be sung with em- 
phasis, and rather slowly. 

The second inflection the semipunctum, is used in the 
second part or section of the prayer, usually indicated 
by a semicolon or comma. When a prayer is so short 
that both inflections cannot be introduced without destroy- 
ing the sense, the semipunctum is omitted. The semi- 
punctum should never be sung before the punctum in 
the body of the prayer; the punctum always comes first; 
e. g. In the Prayer Deus, qui nos conspicis, on the Feast 
of St. Calixtus, 14. October, the punctum principale falls 
on the word deficere, and then the semipunctum is not 
used. The same occurs on the 29 th of Nov. and elsewhere. 

The punctum and semipunctum are used only once 
in each prayer, however many the clauses. This rule 
should be especially borne in mind , in the protracted 
prayers of some new Feasts. At the close of the prayer, 
the accented syllable, {not the final syllahle) of the last 
word, should be held out, by dwelling on the vowel ; and 
a short pause made between it and the closing formula. 

When the prayer closes with Per Dominum , and 
Per eundem Dominum, the semipunctum comes first, 
and falls on tuum s the punctum principale last, on Sancti 
Deus. In the conclusion Qui tecum vivit, or Qui vivis, 
the semipunctum is altogether omitted , and only the 
punctum used on Sancti Deus. 

If several prayers are to be sung sub unica conclu- 
sione, each one has its punctum, and semipunctum at 
the places indicated. 

The response Amen should be sung on one and 

the same note, EEqEzqEE 


Examples of prayers in the Festive tone. 
(In ritu dupl. aut semidupl.) 

JDominus vobismwi, is always, and in all cases 
to be sung thus. 

± 5 — W-4-W— N- N-W- 



t. Do minus vo bis cum. Et cum spi-ri-tu tu-o. 

-ilS — H- H -W-=l : F-" -N— W — W-»- W-W — a-H-3 -H-il-^— H-»-«»- 

O-re-mus. De-us, qui ho-di-er-nam di-em A-po-sto-16-rum 

F E D F 

tu-6-rum Pe-tri et Pau-li marty-ri-o con-se-cra-sti : 

F E 

S--N -H-N-»-W-H-»-N -H -N — H— H -»-H — H-H- H-W-m-^ 

Ec-cle-si-ae tu-ae e-6-rum in 6-mnibus sequi prseceptum; 

per quos re-li-gi-6-nis sumpsit ex-6r-di-um. Per D6-minum 
F E 

-■Is — w — w — w -n — w — w- q-w -^- w-w-u-^-w— N-W — 

nostrum Jesum Christum Fi-li-um tuum: 1 ) Qui tecum vi.vit 

et regnat in u-ni-ta-te Spi-ri-tus sancti De-us, per 

6-mni-a sae-cu-la sae-cu-16-rum. Amen. 

II. Tonus simplex ferialis. 

The prayers in this tone also called Tonus ferialis 
missce, are sung without any inflection whatever, and are 
purely monotonia Where a punctum or semipunctum 
would be used in the festive tone, here a pausa or su~ 
spirium is substituted. There is no need of giving an 


example of this intonation as all the syllables are sung 
to the same note. The Tonus simplex ferialis is used: 
1) in Festis simplicibus and diebus ferialibus; 2) in 
Missis Defunctorum ; 3) for all the prayers at the bless- 
ing of Candles and Palms (Candlemas Bay and Palm- 
Sunday), which close with, Qui tecum vivit, Per Domi- 
num nostrum &c, or clausula major; 4) for the prayer 
Deus a quo et Judas, on Good Friday, as well as the 
omnipotent immediately following , and the Libera nos 
after the Pater noster ; 5) for the praters that occur 
before the Mass on Holy Saturday and Vigil of Pente- 
cost, at the end of the Prophecies, and at the blessing 
of the Water; 1 ) 6) for all the prayers of the Officium 
Defunctorum , of the Litanies, Processions &c. if they 
terminate with the clausula major; as for example, on 
All Souls Day, and the Rogation Days. 

III. Tonus ferialis. 

In this form of Intonation, all the words of the 
Prayer are, as in the previous case, sung to one note, 
except the last word and the ending or close; 2 ) where 
the voice falls a minor Third. 

Example of the Tonus ferialis. 

Concede, misericors Deus, fragilitati nostrae praesidium : | 
ut qui sanctae Dei Genitricis memoriam agimus, | inter- 
ces-si-6-nis ejus au-xi-li-o | a no-stris in-i-qui-ta-ti-bus 

=i-=*zz3t q q=z=z=zq — qzdft=: 

re-sur-gamus. Per e-un-dem Chri-stum D6-minum nostrum. 

') The prayers at the blessing of the fire are simply read, not 

l ) The ending of prayers in these cases, where the ferial in- 
tonation should be used, is always : Per Christum Bominum nostrum, 
or Per eundem Christum Dominum nostrum, or Qui vivis et regnas in 
scecula sceculorum, and is called the clausula minor. 


This Intonation is used: 1) With the prayers sung 
after the four Anthews of the B.Y. M. 2) For the prayer 
Dirigere a,t Prime. 3) In the Office of the Dead, at Ve- 
spers (Matins), Lauds, Libera, when the clausula minor 
is annexed. 4) For the prayers after the Litanies with 
clausula minor. 5) At the Asperges or Vidi aquam on 
Sundays. 6) After the Mandatum on Holy Thursdays. 
7) Before and after the blessing of the candles, (Feast 
of the Purification) ashes, and Palms when the prayers 
close with the clausula minor; and at Benediction, or 
expositio SS. Sacramenti, out of Mass time, when the 
prayers are terminated by the clausula minor. When 
several prayers are sung in succession in Tono feriali, 
then this inflection of the minor Third is only made on 
the last word of the last prayer. 

Observation I. Before the 7 Prayers of Good Friday, 
after the Prophecies on Holy Saturday, at the blessing of 
candles on the 2 n <* of February (if after Septuagesima), 
and in the Masses of Quarter tense extra tempus pasch. 
the following is sung by the Celebrant, Deacon and Sub- 

Sacerdos. Diaconus. Subdiaconus. 

1) CD A C D ED A CD 

O - r e-mus Fle-ctamus ge nu-a : Le - va - te. 

The full tone D-C, and the minor third A-C, should 
be well practised; and the fourth (JT-C) should never be 

Observation II. At the Oratio super populum, (can- 
tata Post-conimunione in missa de f'eria temp. Ouadrag.) the 
Deacon sings after the Or emus of the Celebrant. 

Hu-mi-li - a - te ca-pi-ta vestra De-o. 

Observation III. On Good Friday the prayers com- 
mencing with Or emus, are sung to a peculiar intonation, 


which in some Missals is only noted for the first, but here 
we give all in full. 

O-re-mus, delecti'ssimi nobis | pro Ecclesia sancta De-i: 


ut e-am Deus et Dominus noster | pacificare, | 
adunare, 1 et custodire dignetur toto 

or-be ter- 

rarum: sub-ji-ci-ens ei prin-ci-pa-tus , et po-te-sta-tes : 


detque nobis quietam et tranquillam vi-tam de-gen-ti-bus, 


-J— -^-g— rr 

glorificare Deum Patrem o-mnipoten-tem. -re-mus &c. 

See Observation I. 

The prayer immediately following is then sung in Tono simplici 
feriali, on the one note D. 

II. Oratio. 

O-re-mus et pro beatfssimo Papa no-stro N... ut De-us 


et Dnus noster, | qui elegit eum in ordine E-pi-sco-pa-tus, 



H-h — M— H- i]-** 

salvum atque inc61umem cust6diat Ecclesiae suae sanctae, 
E C 



5 Jn H 

ad regendum p6pulum san-ctum De-i. Oremus &c. as above. 


m. Oratio. 

O-re-mus et pro 6m-ni-bus E -pi'-sco-pis, Pres-by - te-ris, 

Diaconibus, | Subdiaconibus , Acolythis , | Exorcistis, 
Le-cto -ri-bns, | O-sti-a-ri-is, Con-fes-so-ri-bus, | 

Virgi-ni-bus, Yi-du-is, et pro omni po-pu-lo san-cto De-i. 

O-re-mus &c. as above. 

IV. Oratio pro Romano Imperatore oh sublatum Bomanum im- 
perium non amplius recitetur, nec qitidqiiam aliud ejus loco substitua- 
tur. S. R. C. 14. Mart. 1861. 

V. Oratio. 

O-re-mus et pro catechumenis nostris : ut Deus et Dnus 

noster, adaperiat aures prae-cor-di-6-rum i-pso-rum 

ja-nu-amque mi-se-ri-cor-di-ae; ut per lavacrum regenera- 
ti6nis | accepta remissione omnium pecca-to-rum , et ipsi 


tf nL I — , S=*=± 

inveniantur in Christo Jesu D6-mi-no no-stro. Oremus <fec. 

as above. 

VI. Oratio. 

-N— ♦— 

- re - mus , dilecti'ssimi nobis, I Deum Patrem o - mni-po- 


tentem: ut cun-ctis mun-dum purget er-ro-ri-bus : morbos 

au-fe-rat; fa-mem de-pel-lat: a-pe-ri-at car -ce -res, 

vi'n-cu-la dis-sol-vat, pe-re-gri-nan-ti-bus re-di-tum, in-fir- 



man-ti-bus sa-ni-ta-tem: na-vi-gan-ti-bus por-tum sa-lu-tis 

in - dul - ge - at. Oremus &c. as above. 
VII. Oratio. 

i'S y— 



O-re-mus pro haereticis et schis-ma-ti - cis : ut Deus et 


Dominus noster J eruat eos ab erroribus u-ni-ver-sis, 


et ad sanctam matrem Ecclesiam 
Cath61icam, | atque Apost61icam revo-ca-re di-gne-tur. 

Oremus &c. as above. 

VIII. Oratio. 

- re-mus et pro per- fi-dis Ju-dae-is : ut Deus et Dnus 

noster | auferat velamen de c6r-di-bus e - 6-rum ; ut et 

ipsi agnoscant Jesum Cbristum D6-mi-num nostrum. 

Oremus &c. as above. 


IX. Oratio. 


- re-mus et pro pa-ga-nis: ut Deus omnipotens auferat 

iniquitatem a c6r-di-bus e-6-rum; ut re-li-ctis i- do -lis 

su-is, con-vertan-tur ad De-um vi-vum et ve-rum, | 
et u-ni-cum Fi-li-um e-jus Je-sum Chri-stum | 


De-um et D6-mi-num no-strum. Oremus &c. as above. 

CHAPTEK 21st. 

I. The Epistle is sung on one note without any 
change or inflection; except, before a mark of interro- 
gation, where the accentus interrogativus is introduced. 
This inflection is made by falling a semitone, and then 
returning to the reciting note. If the sentence close with 
a monosyllable, the inflection is made on it; if with a 
word of many syllables, the voice falls the semitone on 
the accented syllable of such word; e. g. 

Tonus Epistolse. 

=[::=q:=— ==:q^^ 

Le-cti-o li-bri sa-pi-en-ti-ae. Quis est hie et laudabi- 

Quid fgitur 





Dedit illi coram praecepta, et legem vitae 


Finis, slowly and well sustained. 


* — ♦— 


e3 3 £ 

et dis - ci - pli - nae. 

II. After the Epistle or Lesson, comes the Gradual. 
This for the most part is sung to a prolonged melody, 
and frequently touches the extreme limits of the Gre- 
gorian compass. Two chanters intone the Gradual, that 
is, sing the first word or words until they meet the bar 
or line drawn across the stave =|= ; then the full choir 
joins in and sings down to the f or Gradual-verse, which 
is sung by the chanters only. Should the Gradual be 
followed; as is mostly the case, by two Alleluias and 
a verse of a psalm; then the Chanters sing the first 
Alleluia down to the neuma 1 ) or sign =ife=; the Choir 
repeats the same Alleluia, and continues the neuma fol- 
lowing, but only on the vowel a. Then the Chanters 
intone the verse down to the sign =rjrt= , and the Choir 
continues it to the end ; — the Chanters repeat the Al- 
leluia to the neuma; the choir falls in and sings the 
neuma only, on the vowel a. From Septuagesima, in- 
stead of the double Alleluia and verse, the Tract should 
be sung; each verse of which is intoned by the Chan- 
ters, and continued by the Choir. 

In Paschal Time the Gradual is omitted, and only 
the Alleluias and verse sung , in the manner just de- 
scribed; but in Paschal time, the verse is followed by 

') We have already explained the various significations of the 
word neuma. Here it is used for the group of notes sung to the final 
vowel of the word Alleluia, by way of prolonged jubilation. 


a new special Alleluia and a second verse. This special 
Alleluia is intoned by the Chanters down to the neuma, 
or sign =J=, the Choir does not repeat it but vocalizes 
the neuma to the vowel a; then the chanters intone the 
verse as before, and the special Alleluia is repeated 
with neuma. 

The Alleluia and verse 1 ) differ in the character of 
the melody, and mostly in the modus, from the Gra- 
dual to which they may be annexed. 

Observation. In Masses for the Dead there is a 
Gradual and Tract; both of which strictly speaking should 
be sung. The Sacred Congregation of Rites in an answer 
dated the 11. Sept. 1847. says: "Vel non celebrandas Missas 
defanctorum vel canenda esse omnia, quae precationem suf- 
fragii respiciant." This would imply that at least the 1st 
verse of the Gradual, which is per modum suffragii, and 
the entire of the Tract or Absolve should be sung. How- 
ever the praxis in the Papal Chapel, and in the Roman 
Basilicas, is to omit the Gradual and sing only the Tract 
or Absolve. 

"The last syllable of the last Alleluia by being 
"broken up into several notes , is held out in a long 
"protracted chant — This prolongation of the Alleluia 

l ) "Before the correction of the Gregorian Chant under Pius V., 
great confusion prevailed as to the method of singing the Alleluia and 
verse. St. Gregory appears to have left it to the good will of the 
singers, and in the writings of this immortal Pontiff, we meet the 
words: Alleluia et Versus quale volueris." Lambillote , Aesthet. p. 33. 
The 1 st Ordo Romanus says: "In quotidianis diebus, si voluerint can- 
tores , tantum prima pars dicatur." (The Alleluias in the older Litur- 
gies were joined with several verses, and continued until the cere- 
monies preceeding the singing of the Gospel had ended. Even still in 
Pontifical Masses, this custom is observed, and the 5 t]l Ordo Romanus 
says: "Episcopus annuit magistro scholce, quando a cantoribus Gra- 
duale vel Alleluia repetere debeat") On account of this practice it may 
be inferred as a practical rule , that according to circumstances, one 
or more verses of the Gradual, Alleluia, Tract or Sequence may be 
sung as many as can be sung until the Deacon is ready to sing the 
Gospel. In a Missa cantata; — without Deacon or Subdeacon;— the 
singing of the Gradual &c, may be omitted altogether. 


"was called Sequence.... Later on however, words 
"appropriate to the Festival were supplied to this pro- 
"tracted chant, to which the name Sequence was re- 
stricted..... By degrees every Sunday and Festival 
"had its proper Sequence, until the correction of the 
"Missal, when only four were retained in use." l ) 

The Sequences in earlier times were also called 
Prasce; most of them were composed by Notker Bal- 
bulus (A. D. 912). Pre-tridentine Missals have as many 
as one hundred such; however, the general Reform of 
the Missal ordered by Pius V., eliminated all but the 
five 2 ) best and most beautiful. 

These truly divine poems, the works of most holy 
mem are wedded to equally divine melodies. As a rule, 
each verse has its own special melody, or in some in- 
stances two verses are sung to the same notes. 

III. The Gospel admits of three inflections; 1) be- 
fore a mark of interrogation, 2) before a full stop, 
and 3) at the termination. 

Before a mark of interrogation, the voice falls from 
the reciting note, half a tone, Do-Si, and returns imme- 
diately to the same note: before a period or full stop, 
it falls a minor third, — Do-La, and returns at once to 
the reciting note Do, without any intermediate Si. The 
accented syllable before a period is always sung on the 

') Amberger, Pastoraltheologie. II. Vol. p. 97. 

*) These five are: Victimce Paschali Laudes, of Wipo (11 th century) 
for Easter; Veni Sancte Spiritus, (11 th cent. [?]) for Pentecost. Lauda 
t'ion, of St. Thomas of Aouin (13 th century) for Corpus Christi; and the 
Stabat mater dolorosa of Jacopone (end of 13 th cent.) for the Seven 
Dolours of the B. V. M. The Sequence Dies Irm may not be classed 
with the above ; it is a speciality of the Mass for the Dead. As the 
last verse of the Dies Irce contains a prayer for the departed , it 
must always be sung. The descriptive or dramatic verses may be 
omitted. Schubigers work : "Die Sangerschule von St Gallen" affords 
a great deal of information regarding the Sequences. 



tonus currens > or reciting note, and the minor third 
should .never be made on a short syllable , it usually 
occurs on the fourth syllable before the period. Towards 
the termination of tire Gospel, about the fourth or sixth 
last syllable, *) the voice falls the minor third, and then 
returns to the reciting note, but with an intermediate Si, 
and these notes should be sung slowly and impressively. 

Tonus Evangelii. 

-jj U — ♦ — N— W — jj^ — * — * 

f. Do -mi -nus vo-bis-cum. Et cum Spi-ri- tu tu - o. 

Sequentia sancti Evangelii se-cun-dum Mat-thae-um, 

Jo - an-nem, 




se-cun-dum Mar - cum. 

" Lu - cam. 

ti - bi D6 - mi - ne. 

Quid er-go e-rit no-bis? 
Nonne decern mundati sunt? 

Mediatio communis. 


Hi autem qui por-ta-bant stete-runt. Hie autem dixit: 
Mediatio in monosyllabis. aho Finalis. 

— m- 

-♦— N— N— 

Quia Pro-phe-ta est. 

Et vitam aeternam pos- si -de -bit. 
Et qui se humiliat ex- al-tabi-tur. 
Non potest meus esse disci-pulus. 

') The Direct. Chori remarks: non fit depressio vocis a fa ad re 
(here it is Do -La, same interval as Fa-Be, F-D) ante 6 syllabam.... 
nec post quartam. 


Observation. The Passion of our Lord, according 
to the four Evangelists, is sung in Holy Week in a pe- 
culiar manner.' Three Priests or Deacons, 1 ) divide the 
Text between them in such a way, that one chants the 
words spoken by Our Saviour, another the narrative of 
the Evangelist, and the third the words spoken by other 
individuals, such as Peter, Pilate &c. the Jews or the Sy- 
nagogue. In the Missal these three divisions are marked 
thus, X (Christus), E (Evangelist a), T (Turba), or f (Christus), 
C (cantor or chronista), S (succentor or synagoga), or S 
(Salvator), E (Evaiigelista) , Ch (Chorus), or finally B (vox 
bassa, Christus), M (v. media, Evang.), A (v. alia, the Turba). 
Those passages in which a multitude or number of indi- 
viduals are represented speaking, may be sung by a spe- 
cial choir to the harmonised arrangements of Yiitoria, or 
Suriano, &c. 

William Durandus Bishop of Menda, who died in Rome 
on the 1 st of November 1296, in his Rationale Divin. Of'fic. 
lib. 2. cap. de fer. 2. post Dominic, in ramis palmarum, te- 
stifies that even at that remote period, "tion legitur tota 
passio sab tono evangelii, sed cantus verborum Christi dul- 
cius moderantur ; evangelistae verba in tono evangelii pro- 
feruntur; verba vero impiissimorum judaeoram clamose , et 
cum asperitate vocis." (See Baini, Vol. II. page I JO.) 

The Tonus passionis varied in different countries. 
However the Roman method, compiled by Guidetti, now 
prevails universally. 2 ) 

h a 

E. Passi-o D6-mi-ni nostri Je-su Christi se-cundum Matthae-um. 
Ch. Tu di - - cis. S. Cruci-fi-ga - - - tur. 

*) Or the Celebrant as Christus, Deacon and Subdeacon the other 
parts. If however the Passion be not sung by the Priest and sacred 
ministers at the altar, then ordinarily speaking, a Subdeacon cannot 
take the part of the Turba, still less that of tlie Evangelist, because 
he cannot use the stole. 

l ) A very useful edition of the four passions in full was brought 
out in Rome 1838 by Alfieri "Cantus passionis" This has been re- 
produced by Pustet in Eatisbon. 



IV. After the Gospel the Celebrant intones the Credo 
in Unum Deuwi, if the Rubric should prescribe it, and 
the choir answers, commencing with the word Patrem. 

The official edition of the Gradual contains, besides 
the first form of chanting the Credo , usually found in 
most Graduals, three others written in the same Tone 
or Mode. (IV.) Any one of these can be selected by the 
Choir. The intonation of the Credo is as follows : 

GrE F ED Ga a 

Credo in u-num De-um. 

The choir immediately follows with the words Patrem 
omnipotentem, and sings all the words *) without abbre- 
viation to the end. 

Y. As soon as the Credo is terminated, the Cele- 
brant sings Dominus vobiscum. and the Choir responds. 
The Celebrant then introduces the Offertory by Ore- 
mus, as follows : 

t. Dominus vobiscum. Etfcum Spiri-tu tu-o. Sac. O-remus. 

The Offertory consists of an extract from the 
Psalms or some other portion of Scripture, and all the 
Offertories assigned to each day and Feast are contained 
in the Graduate. Like the Introit, it is intoned by 1 , 2 or 
3 and 4 Chanters according to circumstances, and then 
continued to the end by the full choir. In Paschal Time an 
Alleluia is added, which if not printed after the Offertory 
of the day, may be found at the end of the Graduate. 

l ) What we already advanced when speaking of the Gloria, holds 
equally for the Credo. The Sacred Congregation, and innumerable 
Provincial and Diocesan Councils have published Decrees against all 
abbreviation in the Credo. See Smeddirik. 2 ni year Ccecilia, Be Herdt &c 


Observation. A custom very generally prevails of 
singing a Motett instead of the Offertory, or after the Of- 
fertory and before the Preface. The first mentioned prac- 
tice is not allowable, as the Offertory prescribed for the 
day should be sung and may not be substituted. If time 
however permit, it is allowable after the Offertory either 
to repeat it, or to sing a Motett suitable to the Festival. 
Thus, if it be a Feast of the B. Sacrament, an Salutaris 
or Ave verum &c, if of the B. V. M. an Ave Maria, Alma 
Virgo &c; but we fail to see the appropriateness of the 
<e Quis est homo" on Christmas Day, or of the Inflammatus 
on Easter Sunday. 

CHAPTER 22nd. 

The Preface, as its name indicates, is an intro- 
duction to the Canon of the Mass. It commences with 
an antiphonal chant between Priest and People (choir). 
Both Text and Melody are of very ancient date. Pope 
Gelasius is reputed by some writers to be the author. 
Baini quotes a manuscript in the Vallicellian Library, 
dating from 1075, in which the melodies are precisely 
the same as we sing at the present day. 

The Intonation or Chant of the Preface is of two 
kinds: Solemn {cantus solemnis or festivm), and Ferial 
{cantus ferialis). 

The Missal contains 1 1 Prefaces, differing somewhat 
in Text, according to the character of the season or 
Festival ; viz. for Christmas, Epiphany, Lent, Passion- 
tide , Easter, Ascension, Pentecost and Trinity (which 
serves also for Sundays throughout the year), for Feasts 
of the B. V. M., of the Apostles, and the Prcefatio com- 
munis or Preface generally used, when no special pre- 
face is prescribed. 


We give here the Chant for all 1 ) the Prefaces, in 
so far as the Text varies. The learner should be care- 
ful to sing the first interval, a minor third (A-C, La-Do) 
correctly; and the recurring full tone from D to C, 
should not be diminished by sharpening the C. 

The Celebrant should also be careful not to intone 
the Per omnia , at too high a pitch ; as by reason of 
the continous ascent of the melody (II. Tone) it reaches 
to a minor sixth from the initial note A; and if this 
be taken too high, the falling and weakening of the 
voice during the course of the Chant, will lead to un- 
tunefulness and precipitation ; neither should he make the 
first interval a fourth G-C, as is too commonly done, 
The accented syllables should be specially attended to. 

1. De Nativitate. 

From Christmas to Epiphany (except the Octave Bay of St. John the 
Evangelist) , on the Purification, on Corpus Christi, and during its 
Octave (if no Festival occur having a proper Preface), on the Feast of 
the Transfiguration, and of the Holy Name, the following Preface is sung. 


Per 6-mni-a sae-cu-la sae-cu-16-rum. A-men. Dominus 
^ def e * de do 

vo-biscum. Ifr. Et cum spf-ri-tu tu-o. t. Sur-sum cor-da. 
e def e e de dc e d dc 

Ha-be-mus ad D6-mi-mim. t. Gra : ti-as 

l ) The Prefaces for the blessing of Palms, and of the Baptismal 
Font, can be learned from the missal. The Prefaces given here are 
taken from the most recent Roman edition of the Missal approved 
of by the Sacred Congregation of Rites ; and are a faithful reprint 
of the work compiled bv Guidetti: Cantus Prcefationum. Bonus. Jac. 
Tomerii. 1588. 

e def e 

ga - mus Do- 


mi -no De - o nostro. Dignum, et ju-stum est. Ve-re 
di-gnum et justum est , ae-quum et sa - lu - ta - re , nos 

ti-bi semper, et u - bi-que gra-ti - as a-ge-re, D6-mi-ne 

sancte, Pa-ter o-mmpotens , ae-ter-ne De - us. Qui-a 

d e e e e e 

p 1 3 

per in-car-na-ti Verbi my-ste-ri-um, no-va men-tis nostrae 


6-cu-lis lux tu-ae cla-ri-ta-tis in-ful-sit: ut ,du m vi-si- 

bi-li-ter Deum co-gno-sei-mus, per hunc in in-vi-si-bi - 

li-um a-mo-rem ra-pi-a-mur. Et i-de-o cum Ange 

lis et Ar-chan-ge-lis, cum Thronis , et Do-mi-na-ti - 6 - 

ni-bus, cumque o-mni mi-h'-ti-a coe-le-stis ex - er - ci-tus, 

hymnum glo-ri-ae tu-ae ca-ni-mus, si-ne fi-ne di-centes. 


2. De Epiphania. 

On the Feast of the Epiphany and during the Octave. 

Per 6mnia &c. Vere dignum et justum est, aequum et salutare, 
nos tibi semper et ubique gratias agere, Domine sancte, Pater omni- 
potens (as at page 134.) 

ae-ter-ne De-us. Quia, cum u-ni-ge-ni-tus tu-us in 

substan-ti-a nostrse mor-ta-li-ta-tis ap-pa-ru-it, no-va 

nos immorta-li-ta-tis suae luce re-pa-ra-vit. Et i-de-o 
cum Angelis &c. (See page 135.) 

3. In Quadragesima. 

From the 1 st Sunday of Lent (Bom. I. Quadrag.J, to Passion- Sunday, 
the following Preface is sung on all Feasts (duplex and semiduplex), 
whichrhave no proper Preface: 

Per 6mnia &c. Yere dignum et justum est, aequum et salutare, 
nos tibi semper et ubique gratias agere: Domine sancte, Pater omni- 
potens (see page 134.) 

ae-ter-ne De-us. Qui cor-po-ra-li je-ju-ni-o vi-ti-a 

comprimis , mentem e - le-vas , vir-tu-tem lar-gi-ris , et prae- 
mi-a: Per Christum D6-mi-num no-strum. Per quem ma - 

je-sta-tem tu-am lau-dant An-ge-li, ad-6rant Do-mi-na-ti 





6-nes, tremunt po - te-sta-tes. Coeli, coe-lorumque vir - 



tu-tes , ac be-a-ta Se-raphim, so-ci-a ex-ul-ta-ti- 

E J - J ■ ' 3-F ^ - ■ ■ « « H 

6 - ne con - ce - lebrant. Cum qui-bus et no-stras vo-ces, 


ut ad-mit-ti ju- be-as, de-pre-ca-mur , sup-pli-ci con-fes - 



si - 6 - ne di-cen-tes. 

4. De Cruce. 

On Passion and Palm-Sunday, on Holy Thursday, and on all Feasts, 
(duplex and semid.J not having a special Preface, which may be cele- 
brated during this time ; also on the Feasts of the Holy Cross , of the 
Sacred Heart, and of the Precious Blood, the following is sung: 

Per 6mnia &c. Vere dignum et justum est, aequum et salutare, 
nos tibi semper et ubique gratias agere, Domine sancte, Pater omnl- 
potens (see page 134.) 

ae-ter-ne De-us. Qui sa-lu-tem hu-ma-ni ge- 

■ne-ris in 

li-gno Crucis consti-tu - i-sti: 

— q — 

ut un-de mors 

i ' 

o-ri-e - 

ba-tur, in-de vi - ta re-sur-ge-ret : et qui in li-gno 


vin-ce-bat, in ligno quoque vin-ce-re-tur: Per Chri-stum 

D6-minum no-strum. Per quern ma-je-sta-tem tuam &c. 

(See page 135.) 

5. In Die Paschse. 

From Easter Saturday to Saturday in albis, on Sundays till Ascension, 
and on all Feasts (dupl. and semid.j during this time, not having a 
proper Preface, the following is sung: 

Per omnia <fec. (see page 134.) 

-N — *— ♦ — ♦ — 

Ye -re di-gnum et ju-stum est, aequum et sa-lu-ta-re 

Te quidem D6-mi-ne o-mni tem-po-re, sed in hac po-tis 


si-mum di-e 1 ) glo-ri-6-si-us prae-di - ca - re , cum Pascha 
no-strum im-mo-la-tus est Chri-stus. I-pse e-nim ve-rus 

est Agnus, qui abs-tu-lit pec-ca-ta mun - di. Qui 

mortem no-stram mo-ri-en-do de-stru-xit, et vi-tam re-sur- 

jidj=.^= ^- w -^- fc:^z± - _ -J 

gen-do re- pa-ra-vit. Et 1 - de-o &c. (See page 135 ) 

1 ) Sabbato s.: in hac potissimum node; per Oct. Pascha?, ut supra; 
Dom. in Albis ac deinceps: in hoc potissimum glonosius . . . 


6. De Ascensione. 

From Ascension Thursday to the Vigil of Pentecost (exclusive) and on 
all intervening Feasts, not having a special Preface, the following is sung: 

Per omnia &c. Vere dignum et justum est , aequum et salutare 
nos tibi semper et ubique gratias agere, Domine sancte, Pater omni- 
potens (see page 134.) 

ae-ter-ne De - us , per Chri-stum D6-mi-num no-strum. 

Qui post resur-re-cti-6-nem suam 6-mnibus di-sci-pu-lis su-is 

ma-ni-festus ap-pa-ru-it, et ipsis cernen-ti-bus est e-le- 
1 - - 1 -I— 

va-tus in coe-lum, ut nos di-vi-ni-ta-tis su-ae tri-bu-e-ret 

es - se par - ti - ci-pes. Et i - de - o &c. 

7. De Pentecoste. 

From the Vigil of Pentecost to the following Saturday, (inclusive) : 

Per omnia &c. Vere dignum et justum est, aequum et salutare, 
nos tibi semper et ubique gratias agere: Domine sancte, Pater omni- 
potens (see page 134.) 

ae-ter-ne De-us, per Christum Dd-mi-num no-strum. Qui 

ascendens super omnes coelos, sedensque ad dexteram tu-am 

promfssum Spi'-ritum sanctum ho-di-er-na di-e in fi-li-os 


a - do-pti - 6 - nis ef - fu - dit- Qua-pr<5-pter pro - fu - sis 

3 ~ 

gaii-di - is , to-tus in or-be terrarum mundus ex-sul-tat. 
Sed et supernae vir-tu-tes at-que an-ge-li-cae Potesta-tes, 

hymnum glo-ri-ae tu-ae con-cinunt, si-ne fi-ne di-cen-tes. 

8. De Ss. Trinitate. 

On Trinity Sunday, and on all Sundays throughout tht year not 
having a special Preface. 

Per omnia &c. Yere dignum et justum est, aequum et salutare, 
nos tibi semper et ubique gratias agere: Domine sancte Pater omni- 
potens (see page 134.) 

ae-ter-ne De-us. Qui cum u-ni-ge-ni- to Fi-li-o tu-o, 

et Spi-ri - tu san-cto , u-nus es De-us , u - nus es 


non in u-ni-us 

sin-gu -la - ri - ta - te per - so-nae, 

sed in u 

-ni-us Tri-ni-ta 

- te sub-stan-ti-ae. Quod e-nim 

i- A 

de tu-a glo-ri-a, re-ve-lan-te te cre-di-mus, hoc de 



:*z:< = w li =z^i(=:Wi3z:«zii|-T i =:W: 

FMi-o tu - o, hoc de Spi'-ri-tu sancto, si-ne dif-fe 

ren-ti-a dis-cre-ti - 6 - nis sen-ti-mus. Ut in confes-si-6-ne 

ve-rae, sempi-ternaeque De - i - ta-tis, et in per- so - nis 

pro-pri - e-tas, et in es-sen-ti - a u-ni-tas, et in 

ma-je-sta-te ad-o-re-tur ae-qua-litas. Quam laudant Ange-li 

at-que Archan-ge - li, Cherubim quoque ac Se-ra-phim: qui 

non cessant cla-ma-re quo-ti-di-e, u-na vo-ce di-cen-tes. 

9. In Festis B. Mariae. 

On all Feasts of the B. V. M. (except the Purification, when the Pre- 
face of the Nativity is used) and during their Octaves, and on other 
Feasts, falling within these Octaves, that have no special Preface: 

Per omnia &c. Vere dignum et justum est, aequum et salutare, 
nos tibi semper et ubique gratias agere, Domine sancte, Pater omnl- 
potens (see page 134.) 


ae-ter-ne De-us. Et te in 1 ) 

* be - a - tae 

') On the Feast of the Annunciation, insert: in Annuntiatione, on 
that of the Visitation: in Visitatione, on the Assumption: in Assum- 
ptions on the Nativity: in Nativitate, on the Presentation: in Presen- 
tation, on the Immaculate Conception: in Conceptione Immaculata, on 


Ma-ri-ae semper Vir-gi-nis col-lau-da-re, be-ne-di-ce-re 
et prae-di-ca-re. « Quae et U - ni - ge - ni-tum tuum 
san-cti Spi'-ri-tus ob - um-bra - ti - 6 - ne con -ce- pit 


■ | — 5 * - ft -ft ft -♦— ft ft — ft —ft — ft -3 — ft — ♦— - 

et vir- gi - ni - ta-tis glo-ri - a per- ma-nen - te , lu - men 

: 1- -I- 

^=^*zfczz!'-ft -ft tf z^ ft-w: 

ae-ternum mundo ef - fu - dit, Je-sum Christum Do - mi-num 

nostrum. Per quern ma-je-sta-tem tu-am &c. (See p. 135.) 

10. De Apostolis. 

On Feasts of Apostles and Evangelists (except the Feast of St. John, 
Evang.J and during their octaves, and on Feasts within these Octaves not 
having a proper Preface: 

Per omnia &c. (See p. 134.) 

Ve-re dignum et ju-stum est, sequum et sa-lu-ta-re. 

»-*z ^ftzzziz:ft < fr B ft-ft: 

•ft-# — ft-ft-y 


Te D6-mi-ne sup-pli-ci-ter ex-o-ra-re, ut gregem tuum 

the Feast ad Nives, of her name, and de Mercede: in Festivitate: on 
the Seven Dolours : in Transfixione, on the Feast of Mount Carmel : in 
Commemoratione, and on Rosary Sundaj^: in Solemnitate. 


j — *- 

pa-stor ae-ter-ne non de-se-ras: 




per be-a-tos A-po - 

sto-los tu-os, con-ti-nu-a pro-te-cti-6 -ne cu-sto-di-as. 

Ut i-i's-dem re-cto-ri-bus gu-ber-ne-tur, quos 6-pe-ris 

tu-i yi-ca-ri'-os e - i-dem con-tu - 11 - sti prae-es-se 

pa-sto-res. Et i - de-o (See p. 135.) 

11. Prsefatio communis. 

On aU Feasts and during their Octaves, and on all Semidonbles having 
no special Preface. 

Per omnia &c. (See p. 134.) 

— 3— M — M — ♦ — ♦ — ■— ♦ — N— 

-N— ■— W— 

J - 

Ve-re dignum et justum est, aequum et sa-lu-ta-re, nos 

ti-bi semper. 

et u - bi'-que gra-ti - as a - ge - 

re, D6-mi-ne 

sancte, Pater o-mmpotens, ae-ter-ne De-us: per Christum 

D6-minum nostrum. Per quern majestatem tuam &c. 

(See p. 135.) 





1. De Nativitate Domini. 

For all Votive Masses of the Most Holy Sacrament and of the Sacred 
Name; also prescribed by the Sacred Congregation since 1868, for Vo- 
tive Masses on Thursdays throughout the year. 
ft c d e 

Per 6-mni-a sae-cu-la sae-cu-16-rum. Amen. nr. Dominus 

i f e de dc 

vo - bis-cum. Et cum Spiri-tu tu-o. t. Sursum cor-da. 

e f 


f e 


Ha-bemus ad D6-mi-num t. Grati-as a-gamus D6-mi-no 



-♦ M — ♦- 

De-o nostro. t. Dignum, et justum est Ve-re dignum, 

— w -w— n — m j m m — s — N— p»- 

et ju-stum est, aequum et sa-lu-ta-re, nos ti-bi semper, 


et u-bi-que gra-ti-as a-ge-re, D6-mi-ne sancte, Pater 

o-mni'potens, ae-ter-ne De-us. Qui-a per in-car-na-ti Verbi 



my-ste-ri-um no-va mentis nostrae 6-cu-lis lux tu-ae cla-ri 


ta-tis in-ful-sit: ut dum vi-si-bi-li-ter Deum cognoscimus 

per hunc in in-vi-si-bi-lium a-morem fra-pi-a-mur. Et i-de-o 
cum Ange-lis et Archange-lis, cum Thronis et Do-mi-na-ti-6 - 

nibus, cumque o-mni mi-li-ti-a eoe-lestis ex-er-ci-tus, hy- 
-I A -^-1 4 

mnum glo-ri-ae tu-ae ca-ni-mus, si-ne fi-ne di-cen-tes. 

2. In Quadragesima. 

On. aU Ferial days: from Ash-Wednesday till Saturday before Passion 
Sunday (inclusive). 

Per omnia saecula &c. Vere dignum &c. (See p. 144). 
,-l A 

* * * « ■ ■ 

Pa-ter omni-potens, aeterne Deus. Qui corpora -li je-ju-ni-o 

vi - ti - a comprimis , mentem e-levas, vir-tu-tem largi-ris, et 

praemia: per Christum Dominum nostrum. Per quern majestatem 

tu-am lau-dant An-ge-li, ad-orant Do-mi-na-ti-6-nes, tremunt 





Po-te-states. Coe-li eoe-lorum-que Vir-tu-tes, ac be-a-ta 
Se-ra-phim so-ci-a ex-sul- ta-ti-6-ne con-ce le-brant. Cum 
quibus et nostras vo-ces, ut admit-ti jubeas, de-pre-camur, 

sup-pli-ci con-fes-si- 6-ne di-centes. 

3. De Cruce. 

On Ferial days from Passion Sunday till Holy Thursday, (exclusive) 
and in Votive Masses of the Holy Cross. 1 ) 

Per omnia &c. Yere dignum &c. (See p. 144.) 

ae-ter-ne De-us. Qui sa-lutem hu-ma-ni ge-ne-ris 


li-gno crucis consti-tu - i-sti: ut un-de mors o-ri-e-ba-tur, 


J5 — q — j T" 

in-de vi-ta re-sur-ge-ret : et qui in ligno vin-cebat, in 

li-gno quoque vince-retur: per Christum Dominum nostrum. 

Per quern majestatem &c. (See p. 145.) 

') Here we must be understood to speak of private Votive-Masses ; 
as when solemn, both the Prayers and the Preface should be sung in 
tono festivo. 


4. Tempore Paschali. 

On Ferial days and Feasts u ritu simplici" from Low Sunday till 
Ascension Thursday : 

Per omnia &c. (See p. 144.) 

Ve-re dignum, et justum est, aequum et sa-lu-ta-re: Te 
quidem D6mi-ne omni tempo-re, sed in hoc po-ti's-si-mum 
glo-ri-6 -si- us praedi-ca-re, cum Pascha nostrum im-mo-la-tus 

est Christus. I-pse e-nim ve-rus est Agnus, qui abstu-lit 
pecca-ta mundi. Qui mortem nostram mo-ri-en-do destru-xit, 

et vitam re-surgendo re-pa-ra-vit. Et i-de-o &c. 

5. De Ss. Trinitate. 

To be sung in private Votive Masses of the Holy Trinity. 

Per 6mnia &c. Vere dignum et justum est, aequum et salutare, 
nos tibi semper et ubique gratias agere, Domine sancte, Pater omni- 
potens. (See p. 144.) 

ae-ter-ne De-us. Qui cum u-ni-ge-ni-to Fi-li-o tu - o, 

et Sp(-ri-tu Sancto, u-nus es De-us, u-nus es D6minus: 



non in u-m'-us sin-gu-la-ri-ta-te per-so-nae, sed in 

u-ni-us Tri-ni-ta-te substanti-ae. Quod e-nim de tu-a 

glo-ri-a re-ve-lan-te te cre-dimus, hoc de FMi-o tuo, 
hoc de Spi'-ri-tu Sancto, si-ne dif-fe-ren-ti-a dis-cre-ti-6 

nis senti'mus. Ut in con-fes-si -6-ne verae. sem-pi-ternae 

que De-i-ta-tis, et in per-sonis propri-e-tas , et in 


es-sen-ti-a u-ni-tas et in ma-je-sta-te ad-o-re-tur 
ae-qua-li-tas. Quam laudant An-ge-li, atque Archange-li, 
Cherubim [quoque ac Se-raphim : qui non cessant clama-re 

i ( 

quo-ti-di-e, u-na vo-ce di-cen-tes. 


6. De Spiritu Sancto. 

In Votive Masses of the Holy Ghost. 
Per 6mnia &c. Yere dignum &c. (as p. 144.) 

ae-ter-ne De-us: per Christum D6-mi-num nostrum. Qui 

as-cendens su-per o-mnes coelos, sedensque ad dex-te-ram 
.^—j J _| A : 

tu-am, pro-mis-sum Spi'-ritum Sanctum in fi-li-os ad-o - 

pti-6-nis ef-fu-dit. Quapropter profu-sis gau-di-is, to-tus 

in or-be ter-rarum mundus ex-sultat. Sed et supernae 

Yir-tu-tes, at-que an-ge-li-cae Po-te-sta-tes, hymnum glo 

as — 

ri-ae tu-ae con-cinunt, si-ne fi-ne di-cen-tes. 

7. De Beata Maria. 

In Votive Masses of the B. V. M. 
Per omnia &c. Yere dignum &c. (See p. 144.) 

ae-ter-ne De-us. Et te in ve-ne-ra-ti-6-ne be-a-tae 

Ma-ri-ae semper Vir-gi-nis col-lau-da-re . be-ne-di'-ce-re 



et praedi-ca-re. Quae et u-ni-ge-nitum tu-um sancti 

Spi-ri-tus obumbra-ti-6-ne con-ce-pit: et vir-gi - ni - ta-tis 


glo-ri-a permanente, lumen aeternum mundo ef-fu-dit, 

Jesum Christum D6minum nostrum. Per quern (fee. (as p. 136.) 

8. De Apostolis. 

In Votive Masses of Apostles. 
Per 6mnia &c. (See p. 144.) 
Vi^zi^EEE«r-^*.:£ig - gi-":--.--^-;^^ 
Ve-re dignum et ju-stum est, aequum et sa-lu-ta-re: 


Te D6-mi-ne suppK-ci-ter ex-o-ra-re, ut gregem tuum 

pa-stor aeter-ne non de-se-ras: sed per be-a-tos A-po-stolos 

tu-os, con-ti'-nu-a pro-te-cti- 6-ne cu-sto-di-as. Ut i-i's - 

dem re-ctoribus gubernetur, quos operis tu-i vi-ca-ri-os 

e-i-dem con-tu-H-sti praees-se pa-stores. Et i-de-o <fec. 

(See p. 145). 


9. Praefatio communis. 

On Simple Feasts on Ferial days having no special Preface, and in 
Masses for the Dead. 

Per omnia saecula &c. (See p. 144.) 
jjj — h— hF^Y 11 ^ — B — ♦— i 

Ve-re dignum et justum est, aequum et sa-lu-ta-re, 

|| — 2 — * - ♦ — H— 

— =1 

nos ti-bi semper et u-bique gra-ti-as agere: D6-mi-ne 

sancte, Pa-ter o-mm'potens, ae-ter-ne De-us, per Christum 

Dominum nostrum. Per quern maje-statem tuam lau-dant 

Angeli, ad-6rant Do-mi-na-ti -6-nes, tremunt Po-te-states. 
Coe-li, coe-lorumque Vir-tu-tes, ac be-a-ta Se-ra-phim, 


so-ci-a ex-sul-ta - ti - 6 - ne con-ce-le-brant. Cum quibus et 

nostras voces ut ad-mi't-ti ju-be-as, de-precamur suppli-ci 

con-fes-si - 6 - ne di-centes. 

The Sanctus, which is selected according to the 
season, or rank of the Festival (see p. 1 15. Observ. Ill) 


immediately follows the Preface. During the Elevation 
nothing should be sung : — "silet chorus et adorat cum 
aliis." The Organ however may play ; yet in such a way 
as not to distract, but rather help the devotion of the 
adoring faithful. "Organum vero, si liabetur, cum omni 
tunc melojptia et gravitate pulsandum est." (Ccerem.Episc. 
lib. II. cap. viii. n. 70.) . 

After the Elevation the Benedict us should be 
sung: — u Cantari debet post elevationem." (S. B.C. 12. 
Nov. 1831.) This rule certainly holds for Pontifical 
Masses, and for others, De Herdt says it is a praise- 
worthy custom ; — "laudabilis." However if the Sanctus 
and Benedictus should both be sung before the Elevation, 
then it is allowed, after the Elevation, to sing the Tan- 
turn ergo, or other portion of a Hymn or Antiphon to 
the Blessed Sacrament ; provided however the words be 
not altered. 1 ) 

CHAPTER 24th. 


I. There are two intonations of the Pater noster, 
one solemn, the other ferial. 2 ) 

') See Kornmiiller "Die MusiJc beim Jiturg. Hochamte." In some 
places it is customary in Masses for the Dead to sing after the Ele- 
vation the "Pie Jesu" or "0 Salutaris" the latter with words different 
from those of the authorised hymn. This appears unrubrical, and many 
rubricians are of opinion that* the permission quoted above, does not 
apply to Masses for the Dead, where nothing should be added to the 
liturgical text. 

5 ) In the Bull: "Quo primum temp." Pius V. remarks (14 th July 
1570): "Quare abusus est, in Missa cantata legere tantum, quce juxta 
ritum, modum et normam Missalis cantari debent, uti fit, quando Epistola 
uel Prafatio abrumpitnr, cantus Pater noster omittitur vet truncatttr &c." 

A C D 


Tonus festivus. 

— — —tzzzz 

Per 6-mni-a sae-cu-la sae-cu-16-rum. A-men. O-re-mus: 

C D E 

Praeceptis sa-lu-ta-ribus mo-ni-ti, et di-vi-na fn-sti-tu-ti 

-I— - 

2£art endit^ manus. 


6-ne forma -ti, au-de-mus df-ce-re. Pa-ter noster, qui 


es in coelis: Sancti-fi-ce- tur no-men tuum: Ad-ve-ni-at 

regnum tu-um: Fi-at vo-luntas tu-a, si-cut in coe-lo, 

et in ter-ra. Panem nostrum quoti-di -anum da no-bis 

ho-di-e. Et di-nrit-te nobis de-bi-ta nostra, si-cut et 



nos di-mit-timus de-bi-t6-ribus nostris. Et ne nos in-dti - 

cas in ten-ta-ti-6-nem. fy. Sed K-be-ra nos a ma-lo. 

2. Tonus ferialis. 

To be used on simple Feasts, ferials, and in Masses for the Dead. 2 ) 

Per 6-mni-a sae-cu-la sae-cu-16-rum. I£. A-men. Oremus: 

5 ) Also in Votive Masses, of a private not solemn character. 


Prae-ce-ptis sa-lu-ta-ri-bus mo-ni-ti, et di-vi-na in-sti - 

Extendit manus. 

tu-ti-6-ne for-ma-ti 

au-de-mus di-ce-re. Pa-ter 

M — W'3 — M — n— N - — W— ij— W — r — W — W — W-j-f^ 

no-ster, qui es in coelis: Sancti-fi-ce-tur no-men tu-um: 


Ad-ve-ni-at regnum tuum: Fi-at vo-lun-tas tu-a, si-cut 

— U- 

-^ji ^ — i 

in coe-lo 

et in ter-ra. 

Pa-nem nostrum quoti-di-a- 

— d: 

num da no-bis ho-di - e : Et di-mi't-te no-bis de - bi-ta no 

stra, si-cut et nos di-mi't-timus de-bi-to-ri-bus no-stris. 

Et ne nos in-ducas in ten-ta-ti - 6-nem. Sed li-be-ra 

nos a ma - io. 

The Pater roster is immediately followed by a short 
prayer, recited submissa voce by the Celebrant, and then 

Dexter a tenens particulam super Calice, sinistra Calicem, dicit: 

Per 6-mni-a sae-cu-la sae-cu-lo-rum. A-men. 


Cum ipsa particula signal ter super Calicem, dicens: 

Pax f D6-mi-ni sit f sem-per vo-bis-f cum. Et cum 

Spi'-ri-tu tu - o. 

II. The Agnus Dei is repeated three times , con- 
cluding the third time with Bona nobis pacem, instead 
of Miserere nobis. In Gregorian Chant, each repetition 
has a melody of its own, which differs according to the 
class of the Festival. (See Observation III. p. 115.) 

Immediately after the communion of the chalice — 
sumptio sanguinis, and before the first ablution, the 
Communio should be commenced by the Choir. This is 
a short antiphon or Psalm-verse, peculiar to the festival, 
like the Introit and Offertory, and it is intoned and sung 
according to the same rules, (p. 114.) In Paschal time 
an Alleluia is added, which if it do not occur in the 
text, will be found at the end of the Graduate p. 72* 
(S vo edition). 

Observation. Si Communio in Missa solemni distri- 
buitur, Diaconus se conslituit in Cornu Epistolae vel etiam 
descendit in planum ad cornu Epistolae , ubi, versus cele- 
brantem profunde inclinatus alta voce dicit: 

Ton. V. 

Conflteor Deo omni-po-ten - ti , beatae Mariae semper 

-♦ — W- 

Vir-gi-ni beato Michaeli Arch-an - ge - lo , beato 
Joanni Baptf-stae, Sanctis Apostolis Petro et Paulo, 




omnibus Sanctis 

et ti - bi, Pa-ter 

quia peccavi ni - 

mis co-gi-ta -ti- 6-ne verbo et 6-pe-re; me-a cul-pa, 

me-a cul-pa, me-a ma - xi-ma cul-pa. Ideo precor bea 

tarn Mariam semper Vir-gi-nem, beatum Michaelem 

W— W— r-F" . 

Arch-an - ge-lum, beatum Joannem Ba-ptistam, sanctos 

Apostolos Petrum et Paulum , omnes Sanctos , et te 


M— Mi 

pa-ter, orare pro me ad Dominum Deum nostrum. — l ) 

. . . Diaconus respondet "Amen." Aon impedit, quominus in 
numerosa Communionis distributione cantetur Ps. aul hymn, 
de ss. Sacr. ad populum excitandum , movendum et laetifi- 

') This form of chant is also employed when the Confiteor is sung , 
at Pontifical Mass, where an Indulgence is proclaimed. 


CHAPTER 25th. 


After the Prayer, called the Post- Communion , and 
the Bominus vobiscum immediately following, have been 
chanted by the Celebrant; the Celebrant, (in Missa 
cantata,) or the Deacon, (in Missa solemni,) sings the 
Ite Missa est, or Benedicamus Domino, to one or other 
of the following formulas; the Choir to answer Deo gra- 
tias in the same notes. 1 ) 

1. From Easter Saturday to Low Sunday (exclusive). Tonus VIII. 
g a_ g f g a a gchag f ga a g 

-j-p 1 1 -J ~ — i J - 1 -J- 1 

I-te Mis-sa est, al-le-lu-ja, al-le - lu - ja. 
De-o gra-ti-as, 

2. In Festis Solemnibus. 

f^ecdcab c ogagf ^ Mod. XIII. transp. 

I - te e e e e Missa est. 

De - o o o o o gra-ti - as. 

According to the Acta JEphemerides T. III. p. 367. 
6. Sept. 1781. the following Feasts are to be classed 
under the head of Festa solemnia : Nativitas D. AT. J. C, 
Fpiphania, Pascha, Ascensio Dni, Pentecoste, Solemnitas 
Corporis Ghristi, F. Ss. App. Petri et Pauli, Assumptio 
B. M. V., F. Omnium Sanctorum, F. titidi vel patrocinii. 
Hence it follows that this solemn intonation, N° 2, (of 
comparatively recent adoption) is to be employed only 
on the Epiphany, the Ascension, Pentecost Sunday Mon- 
day and Tuesday, Ss. Peter and Paul, All Saints, De- 

*) "Laudandus est mos, quo chorus eodem tono respondet Deo qra~ 
Has." Vid. Grad. Rom. 


dication of the Church, as well as on all Feasts of the 
l 8t class, in solemn Votive Masses, and on - the Feast of 
the Patron Saint (when not de Beata). Christmas Day, 
Corpus Christi, and the Assumption, have the formula 
de Beata, and Easter the form N° 1. 

On account of the number of notes in this Intona- 
tion, it should be sung very smoothly, not drawlingly, 
and care should be taken not to commence it too high. 
Sufficient attention to the rhythm, breathing marks, &c; 
and avoidance of all ostentation or affectation, will ren- 
der this chant solemn and dignified. 

3. In Festis Duplicibus. Ton. I. 

agaehaga agf de ega deg fede f e d 

I - te e e Missa est. 

De - o o o gra-ti - as. 

This form serves for Feasts of the Apostles, 1 ) and 
Feasts which are dupl. II. classis, (majus et minus.) 2 ) 
The several phrases should be smoothly and pleasingly 
sung, and not drawled out in separate notes, of equal 

4. In Missis Beatae Maria?, in Oct. Corp. Clir. et Nativ. Dni. 3 ) Ton. I-II. 
dfga d cd fg f ed 

I - te e Mis-sa est. 

De - o o gra-ti -as. 

') Ss. Peter and Paul is a double of the 1 st class, and has the 
solemn Itt Missa est. N° 2. 

2 ) But Feasts of the B. V. M., de Ss. Nomine Jesu, and others of 
the II. classis, or lower rank use the Ite Missa est de Beata, when 
the Preface is of the Nativity or de Beata. 

3 ) From what has been already said it is clear when this form de 
Beata should be used. On the Sunday however within the Octave of 
the Immaculate Conception N° 8 should be employed. 


The minor third d-f should never he sung as a 
fourth, and the full tone c-d (instead of c#-d) should 
be carefully attended to. 

5. In Dominicis infra annum, in fest. semidupl., et infra Octavas, 
quae non sunt beatae Marise. Ton. I: 

abaga d fgabagfe d cd 

I - te e Mis-sa est. 

I)e - o o gra-ti - as. 

6. From Septuag. to Quinquag. inclusive: 

^=========^=3— ^^^p^-S 

Be-ne-di-camus Do - mi -no. 
De - - - o o gra-ti -as. 

7. In Festis simplicibus, et Feriis temp. Paschali. 
ga c ch a h 

I - te Mis-sa est. 
De - o gra-ti -as 

In Dominicis Adv. et Quadrag. (Advent- and Lent-Sundays.) 

Be-ne-di -ca-mus Do - - o - mi -no. 
De - - - o o gra - ti - as. 

9. Tn Feriis per Annum. 1 ) 
a fa gfede 

Be-ne-di - ca-mus Do - mi-no. 

De-o gra-ti -as. 

') E. g. the 3 Rogation days, and private Votive Masses not oc- 
curring in Lent or Advent. 


10. In Feriis Adv. et Quadrag. 

Be-ne-di-ca-mus D6-mi-no. 
De - o gra-ti-as. 

11. In Missa Vigilise Nat. Dni, in Festo Ss. Innocentium, et in Missis 
Votivis pro re gram, quando non 1 ) dicitur Gloria in excelsis. 

Be-ne-di-ca-mus Do - o - o mi-no. 

De - o o gra-ti-as. 

12. In Missis Defunctorum. 2 ) 
Re-qui-escant in pa-ce. 1$. A-men. 

In Votive Masses with a Gloria, the intonation of the Ite Missa 
est, is regulated by the Gloria: N°ll therefore is used only in solemn 
Votive Masses, which are celebrated in purple vestments, e. g. de 
Passione Domini, ad tollendum schisma &c. 

2 ) Etiamsi tantum pro uno celebratum fuisset, dicitur in Plurali: 


CHAPTER 26th. 

1. By Psalmody we understand the practice of sing- 
ing the Psalms to certain simple melodies or chants ; — 
"a recitation in a musical tone of voice, with a slight 
"inflection or change of tone at certain fixed points." 1 ) 

All the Psalms, (with a partial exception for the 
113 th "In exitu Israel") are sung to eight different me- 
lodies or chants , corresponding to the first eight Gre- 
gorian modes; and these chants are called Psalm- 
Tones, Toni Psalmorum. 

Every Psalm or group of Psalms, is accompanied 
by an Antiphon, which is a verse, taken sometimes 
from the Psalm itself, sometimes from other sources, 
always suitable to the Festival, and serving as an intro- 
duction to the Psalm. The music of the antiphon is more 
elaborate than the Psalm-Tone, being a regular melodic 
composition with one or more notes to every syllable, 
and invariably complete, i. e. ending on the final of its 
mode; so that the antiphon governs the Psalm; — the 
mode of the former determining the tone of the latter. 

Observation. The words antiphonal and antiphon 
require perhaps some further explanation. The custom of 
singing Psalms is most ancient in the Church. The Epistles 
of St. Paul bear witness to it. St. Ignatius Bishop of An- 

') St. Augustine relates that in Alexandria under St. Athanasius, 
such was the simplicity of the chant employed, that "it was more like 
speaking than singing. ' 



tioch, the third from St. Peter, is said to have had a vision 
of angels, and hearing them sing the praises of God in 
alternate choirs, he enjoined upon the church of Antioch 
this method of singing the Psalms. 

In St. Basil's time (A. D. 371) this custom was uni- 
versal throughout the Eastern Church, and he describes 
the people "rising before day, and going to the Church, 
"where having made their confessions and prayers, they 
"proceeded to the singing of Psalms;" — and he adds, 
"that in this holy exercise, the choir being divided into two 
"parts, they mutually answered each other" {avxupaUovoiv 
aMi]loig). The word antiphonal comes from the Greek word 
avxLcpo)vr h compounded of awi, opposite, and cpcovog, a sound; 
and means the reciprocal chant of two choirs singing al- 
ternately. In the course of time however the word anft- 
phon was applied exclusively to that particular verse, which 
was to be sung before and after each Psalm; originating 
probably from the custom of having the Psalm sung by a 
select body of voices, whilst the multitude answered now 
and then with a particular verse which served as a burden 
or chorus. The Text of the 135^ Psalm "Confitemini #c" 
with the constantly recurring "quoniam in ceternum $c." 
will help to give an idea of this practice. "The Antiphons 
"seem to be to the Psalms, what the mysteries of the 
"Kosary are to the Paters and Ares, furnishing appropriate 
"matter for meditation during the religious exercises which 
"follow them. They give a distinctive colouring to the 

"Psalms It is not within the province of the writer 

"to enter into a full description of the antiphonal system, 
"with its inexhaustible store of beauties, but enough has 
"been said to shew how sadly mutilated the Vespers of 
"any festival must be when the words of the antiphons 
"are suppressed, or rapidly recited on a monotone. The 
"choral music of the Catholic Church once subjected to 
"unauthorised curtailment, becomes unintelligible, not to 
"say ridiculous." 1 ) 

2. The following few remarks on Psalm-Tones and 
their construction will be sufficient for the Theory. In 

') See Introduction to "Organ accompaniments to the Antiphons 
ot the Roman Vespera!" by John Lambert. London, 1851. 


the 3 d Part of this book, when we come to speak of 
the Practice of Plain-Chant, a few rules will be given 
for chanting the Psalms , which if observed in practice 
cannot fail to prove useful. 

a) The Antiphon which accompanies ever}- Psalm, 
or group of Psalms, must, on a Double, — Fest. Dupl. — 
be sung both before and after the Psalm. 1 ) On Fes- 
tivals of inferior rank, Semidoubles dtc. only the two 
first words are sung before the Psalm, and the entire 
Antiphon after. 

b) Every verse of a Psalm is divided into two parts, 
the point of division being indicated by a colon: or 
asterisk *. The first member of each Psalm-Tone, i. e. 
down to the asterisk, is always the same; the second 
member has in the 1 st , 3 d , 4 th , 7 th and 8 th Tones various 
endings, which are called the Terminatio or Differentia, 
and in English the "ending," or "final cadence." 

c) The Intonation of the first verse of the Psalm 
may be either solemn, (on great festivals) or ferial 
(on lesser festivals or Ferias). 

d) In the solemn Intonation, only the first verse 
is sung with the little melodic phrase or inflection at 
the beginning, (called on this account the initium or 
inchoatio), in all the subsequent verses it is omitted. 

e) In the Choral Books we find at the end of each 
antiphon, the second member or "ending" of the corre- 
sponding Psalm-Tone indicated in notes ; and frequently 
under the notes we meet the letters E V V A E. 
These are the vowels of the closing words secu/Oruw 
Amen, as every Psalm is regularly terminated by the 
Gloria Patri. 

') When the Organ accompanies , a short interlude after each 
Psalm will allow some one of the choristers to read the Antiphon 
after the Psalm in a low voice, a practice permitted by the Rubric. 
Vide Ccerem. Episc. lib. II. cap. 1. n. 8. 



f) As the mode of the Antiphon determines the tone 
of the Psalm, — the psalm-tone in truth dovetailing with 
the music of the antiphon, — it becomes necessary to 
keep in mind the final note of the Antiphon , and the 
initial note of the Psalm, in order that the progression 
may be natural and easy. The following Table will show 
the relative positions of these notes in each of the eight 
Tones ; the round white note representing the final of 
the antiphon, and the square black note the initial of 
the Psalm. 1 ) 

I. Tonus. II. Tonus. III. Tonus. IV. Tonus. 


V. Tonus. VI. Tonus. VII. Tonus. VIII. Tonus. 

F F F F G c G g 

This Table serves for the Canticles, and the festive 
Psalm-Tones, — Toni Psalmorum festivi. For the Toni 
Psalmorum feriales , we append another Table , which 
gives the final of the Antiphon, and the first note 
of the Differentia or ending of the Psalm-Tone. This 
note is also the Dominant or reciting note. 

I. Tonus. II. Tonus. III. Tonus. IV. Tonus. 

DaDF EcEa 
V. Tonus. VI. Tonus. VII. Tonus. VIII. Tonus. 

FcFa Gd Gc 

*) These final and initial notes will also prove useful in the In- 
troits; but not with the Gloria Patri in the responses to the Nocturns. 


g) If the first half of the Psalm-verse end with a 
monosyllable or Hebrew proper name, then in the 2 nd , 
4 th , 5 th , 6 th and 8 th Tones the last note is omitted. 
Such words for instance, as hi, sum, Israel, ttsqueqtw, 
David. Jacob. Jerusalem, Sion, dkc. come under this rule; 
but Juda is an exception. This incomplete cadence is 
called intonatio in pausa correpta. e. g. 

Ton. V. 

Cre-di-di propter quod lo-cutus sum * 

h) Should the first words of the antiphon be iden- 
tical with the first words of the Psalm, the latter are 
not repeated on semidoubles and simples. For example 
in the Vespers for Sunday, the Antiphon begins with the 
opening words of the 109 th psalm Dixit Dominus: the 
psalm consequently will commence with Domino meo. 

Observation. When a number of choristers, or a 
community are singing the Psalms, all should commence 
and end together, take breath in the same place, and sing 
the inflections of the mediation and ending to the same 
syllables. Most of the words are of course sung to the 
reciting or Dominant note, and so far no rule is requisite 
beyond the universal rule of pronouncing the words clearly, 
minding the punctuation, and in long verses where a comma 
may not occur, taking breath together at some convenient 
point, so as not to interfere with the sense. 1 ) But the 
difficulty of laying down a uniform rule for adapting the 
syllables of the ever-varying words to the notes of the 
same mediation and ending, so as to preserve musical 
rhythm and correct verbal accentuation, is not so easily 
surmounted. The various schemes proposed by many able 
writers on the Chant and Psalmody may be classed 
under two heads, the syllabic, and the accentual. In the 

l ) In the new choral books the breathing places are marked by 
a perpendicular line | drawn between the words where breath is to 
be taken. 


syllabic arrangement, as many syllables are told off from 
each member of the verse as there are notes in the me- 
diation or ending; in other words, a note for a syllable. 
The radical defect in this system is, that in many verses 
the verbal accent must be sacrificed to the musical and 
vice versa. The Mechlin editors adopted the accentual ar- 
rangement, by which the accented notes are invariably 
apportioned to the emphatic or accented syllables, these 
syllables being printed in capital letters. This arrangement 
is theoretically the most perfect, but practically in conse- 
quence of the number of rules it involves regarding the 
treatment of short or unimportant syllables, and the ne- 
cessity of having the entire Psalter printed eight times 
over so that it may be pointed for each of the eight tones, 
it does not fully satisfy all requirements. The editor of 
the new Choral Books published at Ratisbon, and of the 
Mayisler choralis; — of which this present manual is little 
else than a translation ; — when asked which system he 
followed in pointing the Psalms for chanting, replied, that 
he followed neither; because in his opinion the number of 
rules to be observed in both systems tended to enslave 
the chant, and deprive it of that elasticity and freedom 
which is one of its characteristic beauties. 

The principle which he applied in the Graduate Rom., 
Antiph. Rom.., Directorium Chori, and in pointing the Psalms, 
was, "Singe, wie du sprichst," i.e. "Sing as you speak." 
Take a Psalm, read it aloud, minding the punctuation, and 
giving to every syllable its just pronunciation and emphasis, 
read it as though you felt and understood it. Then lift up 
your voice, and recite the same Psalm in any musical tone 
that suits you, — say G. Then sing it to the Psalm-tone 7 
introducing the notes of the mediation and ending, so as 
not to alter the emphasis and accentuation you observed 
when reading, and that, after a little practice, will be 
faultless chanting. It should always be borne in mind, 
that the text is the mistress, the note the slave. 1 ) 
The words must govern the music, and not the music the 
words. We must treat the notes, not as a rigid and un- 

') In the Preface to an ancient collection of Sarum hymns we 
read " Dominam, i. e. literam, ancillari; ancillam, i. e. notam dominari, 
tarn a jure, quam a ratione est penitus alienumr 


alterable fetter, but as a light elastic drapery that ought 
to adapt itself to the words. 

In accordance with this principle, in some of the new 
choral Books (Exequiale Rom., Officlum Nativitatis D. N. J. C. 
and Of/icium Majoris Hebdomadce) the syllables where the 
mediation or ending commences, are printed in larger type; 
but for general use and answering all requirements, a very 
simple method of pointing the Psalms has been adopted 
by Rev. F. X. Haberl, and used in the Vesper-ale Romanum, 
and in a little Book containing the Vesper Psalms only, 
entitled Psalmi Yesperarum}) Over the syllables of the 
mediation and ending in each verse there are figures going 
from 1 to 8, indicating the 8 Psalm- Tones. On whatever 
syllable the figure 1, 2 or 3 &c. is found, there the in- 
flection for mediation or ending begins in the 1 st , 2 nd or 
3 d Tone, as the case may be. There are however three 
exceptions, a) In the third and fourth ending of the 3 d 
Psalm-tone, the inflection does not fall on the syllable over 
which the figure 3 is placed, but on the syllable imme- 
diately preceding, b) In the third ending of the 4^ Tone, 
the inflection falls only on the last syllable, c) This method 
of figuring is not applicable in the mediation to the ferial 
form of the Is* Tone. In the 6* Tone, the neuma g, a, 
in the ending may be sung to two syllables, if necessary. 
By way of example we give here in full the 109^ Psalm. 
The figures 5-8, 4-8 united by a dash, comprise the inter- 
vening figures 6. 7. or 5. 6. 7. The mark I/s, VIII/ 2 &c. 
stands for 1st Tone, 3 d ending, 8* Tone, 2 nd ending; ^?c. 

1 37 4 6 258 4 1 5-8 23 

1. Dixit Domi-nus D6-mi-no me-o: * sede a dex-tris meis. 

'1 34 7 6 258 4-8 1 

2. Donee ponam in-i-nri-cos tu-os, * seabellum pe-dum tu-6-rum. 

1 3 7 4 6 2 58 

3. Virgam virtutis tuae | emittet D6-mi-nus ex Si-on: dominare 

4-8 1 2 3 

in medio inimi-co-rum tu-6-rum. 

1 3 47 

4. Tecum principium in die virtutis tuae, j in splendo-ri-bus 

6 2 58 4-8 1 2 3 

san-ct6-rum: * ex utero ante lu-ci-fe-rum ge-nui te. 

') Published by Fr. Pustet, Ratisbon. This method of figuring the 
Psalms is also found in the Cantica Sacra of Hauber and Ett, re-edited 
by Witt. 


1 347 6 25S 

5. Juravit Dominus et non poe-ni - te - bit e - urn : * Tu es sa~ 

4 15-8 2 3 

cerdos in aeternum | secundum 6r-di-nem Mel-chi'sedeck. 

1 347 6 258 4 15-8 23 

6. Dominus a dex-tris tu-is: * confregit in die irae su-ae reges. 

137 4 6 258 

7. Judicabit in nationibus, 1 im-ple-bit ru-i-nas: * conquassabit 

4-8 1 2 3 

capita in ter-ra mul-torum. 

13476258 41 5-8 23 

8. De torrente in vi - a bi - bet : * propterea ex-al - ta - bit caput. 

1374 6 2 58 1 4-8 23 

9. Gloria Pa-tri, et Fi-lio, * et Spi-ri-tu-i sancto. 

1 347 6 258 

10. Sicut erat in principio, I et nunc, et sem-per. * et in saecala 

4 15-8 2 3 

sae-cu - 16 - rum. Amen. 

CHAPTER 27th. 


I. The following Psalm-Tones are used : l stl y on all 
Feasts of the 1 st and 2 nd class (majora) , throughout 
the entire Divine Office; 2 ndl 7 in festis duplicibus, 
Dominicis et festis semiduplicibus, at Matins, Lauds 
and Vesp er s only. 

Observation. The white note o before the Initinm 
represents the final of the Antiphon; the black ■ is the 
reciting note or Dominant of the Tone. 


Tonus I. -^=j^£^^^E^5E^==5^!^ 

1. Di-xit D6-mi-nus Do-mi-no 
Mediatio. , Finalis 1. . 

m e-o: * Se-de a dex-tris me -is. Se-de a de-xtris 


Finalis 2. 

Finalis 3. 

me -is. Se-de a dex-tris me -is. 
Finalis 4. Finalis 5. 

Se-de a dex- 

tris me -is. 

Se-de a dex-tris me- 


2. Vers. ^ 


Do nee po-nam i-ni- mi-cos tu-os, * scabellum 


pe-dum tu - 6 -rum. 



Tonus ii. ^^^^aar^^^^pp 

1. Di-xit D6-mi-nus D6-mi-no me-o: * 


se-de a dex-tris me -is. 

2. Vers. 

-N — W — W- 


Donee ponam inimfcos tu-os, * sca-bel-lum pe-dum 
Intonatio in pausa correpta. 

tu-6-rum. Ps. 131. 1. Me-men-to D6-mi-ne Da-vid: &c 

Tonus III. 5§E£3E?[ 



1. Di-xit D6-minus D6-mi-no 
Finalis 1. 

me-o: * se-de a dex-tris me-is. 

Se-de a dextris 


Finalis 2. Finalis 3. Pinalis 4. 

3 3 

me-is. Se-de a dextris me- is. Se-de a dex-tris me-is. 
2. Vers. E^z E™^ ^EEEE^ * EAz^ 

Donee ponam ini - mi - cos tu-os, <fec. 


Tonus IV. fa=^3EffipiE E ESS 3EE S; 

~l I T 1 4 

1. Di-xit D6-mi-nus D6mi-no 

Mediatio. Finalis 1. 

-n * 

me-o: * se-de a dex-tris me-is. Se-de a dex-tris 

Finalis 2. Finalis 3. 


me-is. Se-de a dex-tris me-is. 

2. Vers. g^zzJg— [ ==z^ 

Donee ponam inimicos tu-os, * sca-bel-lum pedum 
Intonatio in pausa correpta* i 

tu - 6-rum. Cre-di-di propter quod lo-cu-tus sum. &c. 


Tonus V. f^=§EE^||E|E^EE^S 

1. Di-xit D6-mi-nus D6mi-no 

Mediatio. Finalis. 

'5 5 

me-o: * se-de a dex-tris me-is. 

Do-nec po-nam i-ni-mi-cos tu - os, <fcc. 


Intonatio in pausa coiTepta. 

D6-mi-ne proba-sti me et co-gno-vi'-sti me. 


Tonus VI. ^E^ESE^ ^5E= q=fcJ=t*=a=w: 

" if M 6 

I. Di-xit D6-mi-nus D6mi-no 

Mediatio. Finalis 
me-o: * se-de a dex-tris me-is. 

2..Vers. Yg- [: izzizz=^z=:W=zMzriz: ^p= 

Donee ponam inimi-eos tu-os, &c. 
Intonatio in pausa correpta. 

i r 

Cre - di - di propter quod lo-cu-tus sum, &c. 

Initium. u 

Tonus VII. EtBEta^BEggg* 313 *^^ 


1. Di-xit D6-minus D6-mi-no 

Mediatio. Finalis 1. 


me-o: se-de a dex-tris me-is. Se-de a dextris 

Finalis 2. Finalis 3. 

*— W=r N _— rqrizNziW— M=:^--W^ 

1 7 

me-is. Se-de a dex-tris me-is. Se-de a dextris 
Finalis 4. ^ Finalis 5. 

me-is. Se-de a dex-tris me-is. 

Donee ponam inimicos tuos, * scabellum pedum tuorum. 



Tonus VIII. 

1. Di-xit D6-minus D6-mi-no 
Mediatio. Finalis 1. Finalis 2. 

me-o: * se-de a dextris me-is. Se-de a dextris me-is. 

Donee ponam inimicos tu - os, &c. 
Intonatio in pausa correpta. 


Memento D6-rai-ne David, * et o-mnis mansu-e-tu-dinis ejus. 

II. For the 1 1 3 th Psalm In exitu Israel, there is a 
special chant constructed from a combination of the 1 st 
and 8 th modes, and called Tonus mixtus, (also peregri- 
nus 1 ) 1 irregularis. This irregular tone is only used with 
this Psalm when the Antiphon Nos qui vivimus accom- 
panies it; on other occasions, when this antiphon does 
not occur, such as the Sundays in Advent, the Epiphany, 
Easter, Pentecost and Trinity Sundays and on the Sun- 
days during Paschal Time, this Psalm is sung in the 
Tone corresponding to the Antiphon. 

The first verse of the Tonus peregrinus and its 
accompanying Antiphon are as follows: 

Nos qui vi-vi-mus. In ex-i-tu I-sra-el de Ae-gypto, 

do-mus Jacob de po-pu-lo bar-ba-ro. 

') According to Gerbert the Tonus peregrinus came from France 
where the Roman Singers, sent there in the 9 th and 10 tl1 centuries, 
heard it, and brought it back with them to Rome. 


Nos qui vi-vi-mus be- ne-di'-ci-mus D6-mi-no. 

The 28 remaining verses are sung in the following 
simpler style. 

Fa-cta est Ju-dae-a san-cti-fi - ca - ti - o e - jus, 


^ — W — <-W — W— W — ^ ■ — 

I-sra-el po-te-stas e - jus. 

CHAPTER 28th. 


I. The Tonus ferialis is employed: 1 st on minor 
Doubles, in Festis dupl. minoribus (i. e. on all Feasts 
which are not of the 1 st or 2 nd class, major a), and 
on Sundays and semidoubles, at Prime, Terce, Sext, 
None and Compline. 2 nd in Festis simplicities et in 
Feriis throughout the entire office, and in the Office 
for the Dead. 

Observation. As the Festive and Ferial Tones for 
the Psalms differ only in the Initium and partly in the 
mediatio, whilst the endings remain the same, it will be 
only necessary here to give the first member of the verse. 
All the verses are sung alike. The Intonatio in pausa 
correpta in the prescribed Tones, will be the same as in 
preceding Chapter; the Initium only is ferial. 9 

Initium. Mediatio. 

I. Tonus. .^EEpE^-frziz^ 

1. Di-xit D6minus D6mi-no me-o: * &c 

5 Finales. 


Initium. Mediatio. 

II. Tonus. jgE^^ESEirzMz+d^ 

1. Di-xit Dominus Domino me-o: * &c. 

Initium. Mediatio. 

III. Tonus. :^^"^ £§E§=mEIH ^^EOEw^4^ 

1. Di-xit D6-minus Domino me-o: * &c. 

4 Finales. 

Initium. Mediatio. 

IV. Tonus. ^^^^i1f?E^e5=?^53z^^^= 

1. Dixit Dominus Domino me-o: * &c. 

3 Finales. 

Initium. Mediatio. 

V. Tonus. ^=pE^plE^Egj^EOg^:^= 

i. Di-xit D6-minus D6-mi-no me-o: * &c. 
Initium. Mediatio. 

VI. Tonus. 

1. Dixit Dominus Domino meo : * &c. 
Initium. y Mediatio. 

VII. Tonus. ^^^Egg« gEE^^ g^ 

1. Di-xit Dominus Domino meo:* &c. 

5 Finales. 

Initium. Mediatio. 

VIII. Tonus. ^gp^ ^t^± aE ^S|g 

1. Dixit Dominus Domino meo:* &c. 

2 Finales. 

II. In,, the Canticle of Zachary ; — the Benedictus, 
and in that of the B.Y. M.; — the Magnificat, every verse 
should be sung in the solemn form used for the into- 
nation, even in Ferial offices and the Office for the 
Dead: a inchoantur et decantantur usque ad ultimum 


versum solemniter, etiam in officio feriali vel Defuncto- 
rum." {Direct. Chori page 37*.) *) 

The first verse of the Magnificat has not enough 
of syllables for the usual Psalm chants and is intoned 
in each mode as under ; the second and following verses, 
and the first and all the verses of the Benedictus are 
sung according to the chants in preceding chapter. 

Initium. Mediatio. Fin. 1. 

I Tonus. ^^^EB^pEja51^^E8^qF=>teo<i^ 

i ! 

1. Magnificat anima mea Dominum. 

1. Be-ne-dictus D6-mi-nus De-us I - sra - el; * &c. 
% Et ex-sul-ta - - vit Spi-ritus me - us; * &c. 

Initium. Mediatio. Finalis. 

II. Tonus. 3^p-l:q3^^^^^0E^Ep,-^ 

Magnificat * anima me-a Dominum. 

1. Be - ne - di'ctus D6-mi-nus De-us I - sra-el ; * &c. 

Initium. Mediatio. Fin. 1. 

III. Tonus. 

Magnificat * anima mea D6-minum. 

1. Be-ne-di-ctus Dominus De-us I -sra-el; * &c. 

2. Et ex-sul-ta - vit Spiritus me - us ; * &c. 

') Where a custom (consuetudo) exists, the eantica may be sung 
in ferial form when the office is ferial. S. R. C. 9. Maji, 1857. Act. 
Ephem. Tom. III. p. 587. 


Initium. Mediatio. Fin. X. 

IV. Tonus. j^p^pjfc=tot»Sp ^c S!Siai^=E 

Magnificat * anima mea Dominum. 

1. Be-ne-di'ctus D6-mi-nus De-us I-sra-el * &c. 

2. Et ex-sul-ta - vit spi'-ri-tus me-us &c. 

Initium. Mediatio. Fin. 

V. Tonus. ^E^^ffi^EgB3E35^E*SE^Eg3E 

Magni-ficat * anima me-a D6-minum. 
Initium. Mediatio. Fin. 

VI. Tonus. ^gp^K pimm^paaia^aE 

TT iT 

Magnificat * anima mea Dominum. 

1 1 

1. Be-ne - di-ctus Dominus Deus I-sra-el: * 

2. Et ex - sultavit spi'-ri-tus meus <fcc. 

Initium. Mediatio. Fin. 1. 

VII. Tonus. ;g^|^5gs^^£ 

Ma-gni-ficat * anima mea Dominum. 

1. Be-ne - dictus Dominus De-us I-sra-el; * &c. 

2. Et ex - sul-ta-vit Spiritus me - us; * &c. 

Initium. Mediatio. Fin. 1. 

VIII. Tonus. 

Magnificat * anima mea Dominum. 
1. Be - ne - dictus D6-mi-nus De-us I-sra-el;* &c. 


CHAPTER 29th. 

1. Every Office lias seven parts or hours (horce), 
viz. Matins and Lauds, Prime, Terce, Sext, None, Vespers, 
and Compline. The first part, Matins (hora matutina) 
or morning prayer, to which Lauds is always joined, 
was originally called "vigilice nocturnes" because recited 
in three parts during the night, as the Romans were 
accustomed to divide the night into three watches. Later 
on when the recitation of the office was confined (as a 
duty) to the Clergy, these three parts were united, and 
Lauds or vigilice mqtutince joined with it, so as to make 
one important hour of prayer. 

Matins begins with a Pater, Ave and Credo said in 
silence, then the verse, Domine labia mea dec., chanted 
aloud , and then the introductory supplication JDeus in 
adjidorhim dtc. After this comes immediately the Invi- 
tatorium with the 94 th Psalm, Venite exstdtemus. The 
Hymn, and the 3 Nocturns follow, (each Nocturn consists 
of 3 Psalms with their antiphons, of a versicle and re- 
sponse, and of 3 Lessons with their Besponsoria) ; and 
all is closed (except in Ferial offices, the Offices on Fast 
days, and the Office for the Dead) with the "TeJDeumf 
then Lauds are intoned. In both festive and ferial 
Matins we commence the chant with 

3-=i 3=l-=^===^=i= dfc 

Hebdomad. I)6-mi-ne, la-bi-a me -a a-pe-ri-es. 
Chorus. Et os meum | annuntiabit laudem tuam. 

2. The Deus in adjutorium has a festive and a 
ferial intonation. 1 ) The festive intonation is as follows: 

') Also in Lauds, in the horce minores, and in Vesper and Compline 
it has these festive and ferial intonations. In the Oftice of Holy Week, 



a) In Festo dupl. et semid. ad omnes horas. 

De - us , in ad - ju - to - ri - urn me-um in -ten-de. 


3S= =wm ■ iii r z = z z=z 

Domine, ad adjuvandum me fe-sti-na. Gloria Patri, et Filio, 

et Spi-ri-tu-i san-cto; sicut erat in principio, | et nunc, 

et semper, | et in saecula saeculorum. Amen. Al-le-lu-ja, . 

From Septuagesima Sunday until Thursday in Holy 
Week, instead of the Alleluia the following should be 
sung : 

Laus tibi Domine, rex aeternae gloriae, 

The ferial intonation » for Matins is as follows 
b) In Festo simplici et Feriis ad Matut. 
Hebdomad. r jj| - — immkmrn^ - " 

Deus in adjutorium meum intende. 

Chorus, -g — H — ♦— M — N — tt— H— H — H — H— H-H-fr^-H-i -H-** 

D6-mi-ne, ad ad-ju-van-dum me fe-sti-na. G16-ri-a 

: j§ — — W — W — N— ♦— N — W — W-W -»-W-W-W-j'— 

Pa-tri, et Ff-li-o, et Spi-ii-tu-i sancto: Sic-ut e-rat in 

and of the Epiphany, the Office begins with the Antiphons and Psalms, 
and in the Office of the Dead with the Invitatorium, if three Nocturns 
are to be said. 

princi-pi-o, et nunc, et sem-per, et in sae-cu-la sae-cu- 

16 -rum. A-men. Al - le - lu - ja. 

c) In festo simplici et Feriis ad Laudes et ad reliquas horas. 

jEz*- 111 - 11111 ^- 1 ^ 

T. Be- us in ad - ju - to - ri - um me - urn in -ten- de. 

Chorus responds as at b). 

3. Then follows the Invitatorium. This is a short 
verse adapted to the Office, and so called because it is a 
sort of invitation or encouragement to the work of praise 
which immediately follows. *) It generally closes with the 
words "Venite adoremus." It is divided into two parts 
by an asterisk *, and the entire verse or latter part 
is sung antiplionally i. e. alternately with every two 
verses of the 94 th Psalm , (< Venite exultemus Domino" 
In the Office de Tempore it is found in the Proprium 
de Tempore; for the Feasts of Saints it is taken from 
the Proprium Sanctorum, pr if there be no Proper, from 
the Commune Sanctorum; on the feasts of Virgins, from 
the Commune Virginum, on that of an Apostle, from the 
Commune Apostolorum , (if no special one be provided 
in the Proprium de Sanctis.) 

On the feast of the Epiphany, on the three last days 
of Holy Week, 2 ) and in ordinary Offices for the dead 
(except all Souls Day, and all days when three Nocturns 
are to* be sung), the Invitatory and 94 th Psalm are 

*) The Invitatorium is supposed to have been introduced by Pope 
Damasus, or certainly by St. Gregory. 

2 ) The reason given for there being no Invitatory on the Epiphany, 
is, that the Office of the Epiphany is of older date than the Invita- 
tory ; and as the Liturgy of Holy Week is all of a mournful character, 
the joyful summons of the Invitatory is considered out of place. 



omitted. In Paschal time, (from Easter Sunday till Satur- 
day after Pentecost,) an Alleluia is joined on to the 
Invitatorium. The 94 th Psalm (as indeed ordinarily speak- 
ing every Psalm) closes with the Gloria Patri, except 
in the Officium de Tempore (Sundays or Ferias) from 
Passion Sunday to Thursday in Holy Week. In Offic. 
Defunct, the Requiem cetemam dec. is sung instead of 
the Gloria Patri. Should the Invitatorium be taken from 
the 94 th Psalm, (as on Ferias) then the same words in 
the Psalm are not repeated. 

The ten different melodies for the Invitatory-Psalm, 
are found in the Antiplionarium and Directorium Ghori; 
for the 8 Tones given in full, for the 4 th Tone in 
three forms, for the 6 th Tone in two. 1 ) The Cantores 2 } 
sing first the entire Invitatorium, the choir repeats it. 
Then the psalm " Venite" is sung by the Gantores, whilst 
the choir repeats after each division of the Psalm (two- 
verses) the entire Invitatorium, or the latter part of it. 
We give as examples the Christmas, Easter and Beguiem 
Invitatories. The figures 11* &c. indicate the pages of 
the Direct. Ghori whence these examples are taken. 

1. Chri-stus na - tus est no - - bis: * Ve - ni-te 

ad - o - re - mus. Ps. Ye -ni-te, ex-sulte-mus Do-mi-no , &c 

Ton. IV. pag. 11* 

') The 8 th Tone is not found in the Commune Directorii, as it 
only occurs once in the year, in the 3 d Nocturn of the Feast of the 

~) Fuller information for the full ceremonial in solemn vespers., 
when the ministers in cope, as Cantores, must give the Intonations 
to the officiating dignitary, Vicarius, Canonicus or Episcopus in a 
determined order, may be obtained from the several liturgical book*., 
and in a short form from Schneider's Manudle Clericorum. 


2. Sur-re-xit Do - mi-nus ve - re, * Al - le - lu - ja. 

Ve - ni - te , ex-sul-te-mus D6-mi-no, &c. Ton. VI. pag. 25*. 

l" ••, 

3. Re -gem, cu-i 6-mni-a vi-vunt,* Ye-ni-te ad - o - re-mus. 

Ps. Ve - ni - te , ex-sul-te-mus D6-mi-no, &c. Ton. VI. p. 22*. 

4. In Officium de Dominica et die solemni the 
Chanters intone the first words of the Hymn to the 
officiating priest or Hebdomadarius , who repeats them. 
If the Office is not solemn or de Dominica, the choir 
intones the Hymn. The Hymn is taken on certain feasts, 
from the Proper of the Feast, or from the Psalterium 
disposition per Hebdomadam, the Propr. de Tempore, or 
the Commune Sanctorum. On the three days preceding 
Easter, during the octave following, on the Feast of the 
Epiphany, (at Matins only) and in the Office for the 
Dead, the Hymn is omitted. — The last strophe of 
the Hymn is often varied according to the season. This 
alteration is generally noted in the Calendar, (and in 
Direct. Chori) and applies to all the parts of the Office. 
In the Hymn Iste Confessor the words meruit supremos 
laudis honor es in the 1 st strophe, should be sung instead 
of meruit beatas scandere sedes, when it is not the day 
of the saint's death, and when indicated in the Calendar 
or Or do by MS or mut. 3. vers: 

5. The Hymn is immediately followed by the Nocturns 
(horce nocturnce) three or one. All Festivals ritu dupl. 
et semidupl. (except Easter and Pentecost) and all Sun- 
days have three Nocturns. Festa simplicia, ferias and 


vigils and Easter and Pentecost with their octaves have 
but one Nocturn. 

The Nocturns consist of Antiphons, 1 ) Psalms, 2 ) 
a Versicle (f) and Response (I^>), the Absolutio and 
Benedictio, the Lessons and their Kesponsoria. 

In Dominica et die solemni one Chanter intones the 
first words of the first Antiphon at Matins to the Heb- 
domadarius, who repeats it. When the Office is not de 
Dominica or solemn then the officiating Priest alone in- 
tones. In Festo duplici the choir sings the remaining 
words of the antiphon to the end. 

Two Chanters then intone the first verse of the first 
Psalm ; 3 ) on Vigils, in Quarter-tense and on the Ferias 
of Advent and Lent, only one chanter intones the Psalm. 
When the 1 st Psalm with its antiphon is sung through, 
then in Festis et feriis one chanter intones the initial 
words of the other antiphons to the Canons or clergy 
assisting in choir according to their seniority and rank. 
The Canon or other in choir repeats the intonation. The 
(ther Psalms are intoned in order by the chanters in 
the same way as the first. It is only when the Psalm 
is immediately followed by an antiphon , that the next 
psalm is intoned by the chanters ; if several psalms follow 
on without an antiphon, only the first is intoned by~ 
the chanters. 

') According to the season and rank of the Festival these should 
be sung (in ritudupl.,) both before and after the Psalm; on festivals 
of lower rank only a few words (as far as the asterisk) are intoned 
before the psalm. Paschal time each Nocturn has only the first 
antiphon with Alleluia for all the Psalms, except on the .Ascension 
and Pentecost with their octaves. 

2 ) The Is* N 0C t. de Dominica has 12 Psalms (4 for each antiphon) 
the 2 nd and 3 d Nocturns have 3 Psalms and Antiphons. The Ferias have 
1 Noct. with 12 Psalms and 6 antiphons; the festa dupl. and semidupl. 
have 3Nocturns with each 3 Psalms and antiphons; the festa simplieia 
and Vigils have the antiphons and psalms of the Feria occurring, that 
is 6 antiphons and 12 psalms. 

3 ) When the Organ is played this verse should be intoned without 


Observation. On the three last days of Holy Week 
the Gloria Patrl is omitted at the close of each Psalm. 
Consequently for the last member of the last verse, a 
special ending is prescribed to be used for every Psalm 
without distinction, namely: 

z^Et3E?^^E^E E. ft. Ps. 23., V. Ton, 10. Vers: 


Quis est iste Rex glo - ri - ae? * Dominus virtutum ipse 

est Rex glo - ri - ae. 

And so in all Tones and on all final verses. 

6. In Dominica et die solemni two or more chanters 
sing the Yersicle; in Feriis et festis non solemnibus 
two of the music-choir; on Vigils, in Quarter-tense, and 
on the Ferias of Advent and Lent, only one of the 

Toni Versieulorum. 

a) In Festo Duplici. ahchaga 

t. Constitues eos principes | super omnem terram, a, a - m. 1 ) 
Ijfc. Memores erunt | nominis tui Domine, e, e. 

b) In Festo Semiduplici. 

t. Di-ri-ga-tur D6-mi-ne 

1$. Sicut incensum | in conspectu tu-o, o. 

iF. Angelis suis mandavit de te, e. 

Ut custodiant te in omnibus viis tu-is, i - s. 

*) Should the word end with a consonant, the vowel should have 
the neuma, and the consonant be only pronounced at the very end, 
and then quickly. 


This method of singing the versicles and responses, 
is also to be adopted for the versicle and response after 
the Responsoria brevia in the minor hours on all Fes- 
tivals (ritu solemni to semid. inclusive?) 

c) In Festo Simpl. et diebus ferialibus per totum ofricium. 

t. Domine in coelo | misericordia tu-a. 
Et Veritas tua | usque ad nu-be - s. 

Observation. In Matins and Lauds for the three 
last days of Holy Week, and in Vespers, Matins and Lauds 
of the Office for the Dead, the versicles are sung as follows: 

Hr. Avertantur re-tror-sum | et e-ru - be -scant. 

Qui cogitant mi-lii ma - la. 

A porta infe - ri. 

I£. Erue, Domine, ani - - mas e - 6 - rum. l ) 

7. After the Vers, and Resp. the officiating Priest 
sings : 

Pa-ter noster. secreto. t. Et ne nos indueas in tentati-6-nem, 
Chorus. # Scd libera nos a ma-lo. 

Hebdomad. Absolutio. 

Exaudi Domine Jesu Christi | preces servorum tuorum, | 
Ipsius pietas et miseri -------- 

A vinculis pecca - -- -- -- -- 


et mi-se-re-re no-bis qui cum Patre et Spiritu sancto I 
cordi - a nos adjuvet, qui cum Patre et Spiritu sancto 1 
to-rum nostrorum absolvat nos [ omnipotens 

') In 1. Noct, Offic. Defunct, this response remains in the plural, 
even though the Office be pro uno Defuncto. 


vivis et regnas 
vivit et regnat 

in saecula saecu-16-rum. Chorus. Amen, 
in saecula saecu-16-rum. 

et misericors Dominus. 
Then a minister choro assistens goes to the Lectern 

Ju-be domne benedicere. 
The Hebdomadarius answers with the Benedictio. Of 
the 12 customary blessings, we give here only a few 
as the chant is alike for all. 

Deus pa 
Per evange 

ne per - petua. 

ter o-mnipotens, 
li - ca lectio 
li - ca dicta 

benedicat nos Pater ae 
sit nobis propi'tius et 
sit nobis salus et pro 
deleantur nostra de 

li - eta. 


In riiu simplici, feriali and in Offic. B. V. M. and 
in Sabbato the Absolutiones and Benedictiones are sung 
as follows: 


Precibus et meritis B. M. semper V., 
Sanctorum | perducat nos Dominus — 

et omnium 

ad re-gna coe-16-rum. A- men. 



Nos cum prole pia i benedi'cat Virgo Ma-ri-a. A-men. 

8. The Lector (minister choro assistens) sings the 
Lesson in the following manner : 

Tonus Leetionis. \ 


De Acti-bus A-po-sto-16-rum. Petrus autem et Joannes 

Sic dicitur Punctum. 

aseendebant in templum | ad horam orationis no- nam 

Sic die. Monosyllabum 

Intuens autem in eum Petrus cum Joanne dixit: re-spi-ce 
aut accentus acutus. . Sic can. Interrogation) Sic regulariter finitur Lectio. 

in nos. — Quid ergo erit no-bis? Tu au-tem D6-mi-ne 

mi - se - re - re no - bis. De - o gra - ti - as. 

Observation. The Lessons in Of fic. Defunct, and on 
the three last days of Holy Week, have no Absolutio, Be- 
nedictio or Tu autem Domine at the end. The Reader be- 
gins the lesson after the Pater noster (recited in silence), 
he uses the punctuation noted in the above example, but 
does not close with the fall to the fifth, or with a dif- 
ferent phrase, but on the reciting note sung somewhat 
slower and more solemnly ; e. g. 

') In the 9 th Lesson on Christmas Day (and in all similar in- 
stances) where on the words factum est, the accentus acutus and inter- 
rogatio seem to come in collision, the interrogatio should be sung on 
est, and the accentus acutus be allowed to drop out. 



Yi-si-ta-ti - o tu-a cu-sto-di-vit Spi'-ri-tum me-um. 

The first Nocturn of the three last days in Holy Week 
has for Lessons the so called "Lamentations" of the 
Prophet Jeremias, and they are sung to peculiarly solemn 
and affecting melodies. 1 ) We give a portion of one here as 
a specimen. The 9 Lamentations are given in full in the 
official Direct. Chori and in Officio maforis Hebdomadm. 

Tonus Lamentationis. 

De Lamen-ta-ti - 6-ne Je-re-mi'-ae Pro-phe - tae. Sethi 


Co-gi-ta-vit Domi-nus dissipare murum fHiae Si-cm: tetendit 

fum'culum su-um, et non avertit manum su-am a per-di-ti-o-ne: 
lu-xi't-que ante mura-le , et murus pa-ri-ter dissi-pa - tns est &c r 

') These "touching elegies/' as Card. Wiseman calls them, when 
well sung, form one of the most striking features of the solemn Office 
of Tenebrce. At Guidetti's time, as Baini tells us (Vol. II. pag. 103 
Memorie Storico-Critiche) the Lamentations were not usually sung in 
Plain-Chant but in figured chant or read; and a manuscript in the 
Vallicellian library containing the three Lamentations of the 3 d day. 
was the only one Baini knew that could have furnished Guidetti with 
an idea of the old chant for them. Some changes were made, but so 
judiciously, that Baini suspects Palestrina to have had a share in them. 
The figured music for the Lamentations of Carpentrasso, introduced in 
the Pontificate of Leo X, held their ground in the Papal Chapel to 
the end of Greg: XIII s reign. But no sooner had Sixtus V. ascended 
the throne than he ordered that the 2 nd and 3 d Lamentation on each 
evening should be sung in Plain-Chant; whilst the first might be in 
figured chant, but not that of Carpentrasso which he did not relish, 
and the genius of Palestrina was not slow to correspond with the 
Pontiffs wishes and produce his incomparable arrangements. In the 
preface to the Plain-Chant lamentations Guidetti says "prcesertim cum 
sanctitas vestra lamentationes , quas ego ad musicam rationem restitue- 
ram, in pontiftcio sacello volnerit deeantari" 


Every Lamentation concludes with: 
Je - ru-sa-lem, Je - ru-sa-lem, con-ver-te-re ad D6-minum 
De-um tu - urn. 

9. Every Lesson is followed by its Responsorium, 1 ) 
or Response, which consists of three parts. The first 
part is the response properly so called; the 2 nd part 
begins with a versicle; in the third part, the second 
half of the response , or first from the asterisk * is 

Should the Office have three Nocturns, then the 3 d 
response of the 1 st and 2 nd Noct, and the 2 nd of the 
3 d Nocturn (except in Passiontide) have a Gloria Patri, 
after the versicle, and when this is sung, the second 
half of the responsorium should be repeated. When the 
Office has only one Nocturn, then the Gloria Patri is 
attached to the 2 nd response. 

If however the "Te Deum" is not said, then the 
Gloria Patri is attached to the 3 d response of the 3 d , 
or only nocturn, as the case may be. 

Observation. Any alterations in this order of the 
Responses in the Matins of Christmas, Easter, Passiontide, 
Holy Week &c. are clearly indicated in the Choral books. 

') The responsoria are not to be confounded with the short response 
in answer to the versicle, of which we spoke in parag. 6. of this chapter. 
They are of greater length both as to words and music. The ancient 
ritualists are not agreed about the reason of the name; some saying 
they were so called because one singing, the whole choir did answer 
them; while others say they had their name, because they answered 
to the lessons. Baini tells us that the Responsoria were amongst those 
portions of the Chant that required cutting down because of the length 
of the neumce. 


It may be added, that in Festis solemnibas et Do- 
minicis privitegiatis, the officiating priest, — hebdomada- 
rins, — sings the ninth Lesson. 

10. In Festis solemnibus et Bominicis the Chanter 
gives the Intonation of the "Te Benm" to the Hebdo- 
madarius. who repeats it. If the feast be not solemn 
or a Sunday, then the Chanters in medio cJwri intone 
it themselves. 

Intonatio Hymni Ss. Ambrosii et Augustini. 

e ga Ton. III. et IV. 

Te De-um lau-da-mus. 

The extended compass of this Hymn comprises the 
eight degrees of the scale, from C to c. • 

CHAPTER 30th. 

I. The officiating priest begins Lauds with the Dens 
in adjutorinm, intoned as at page 178. 

In Offic. de Dominica, the Antiphons are found in 
the psaltery (psalterium disposition per hebdomadam), 1 ) 
on Feasts of Saints they are taken from the Proper or 
Common of Saints as noted in the Directory, on Feasts 
of our Lord from the Proprium de Tempore, and on 
Ferias from the Psaltery. 2 ) During Paschal time an 

') The three first psalms have only one antiphon. The Sundays of 
Advent and Lent (Septuag.,Sexagesima and Quinquag. included) have 
special antiphons and psalms; also Low Sunday. 

2 ) The G ferias preceeding Christmas, and the ferias of Holy, Easter 
and Whitsun-weeks, have special offices in the Propr. de Tempore. 


Alleluia is added to each antiphon. The Psalms at 
Lauds are , for all Feasts and ordinary days , except 
from Septuagesima to Palm Sunday, and the Ferias and 
Vigils, (but not those of Easter week,) the following five: 
1) Ps. 92. 2) Ps. 99. 3) Pss. 62 and 66, joined so as 
to count as one, 4) Canticum trium puerorum r 5) Pss. 
148, 149, 150, all sung as one. 

In Dominica aid die solemni the Chanter gives the 
officiating priest the first Antiphon. On other occasions 
the officiating priest himself intones it. 

After the Intonation 1 ) of the Antiphon, two or more 
chanters, according to the dignity of the Feast, intone 
the Psalm as prescribed. 

In cliebus festivis et ferialibus the Chanter gives the 
first words of the remaining antiphons to the Canons or 
assistant clergy in the order of seniority or rank. 

When the Psalms are ended, and the last antiphon 
sung, then the officiating priest sings the "Little Chapter," 
— Gapitulum, 2 ) which is generally the same for Lauds, 
Vespers and Terce. 

Tonus Capituli. 

Beatus vir , qui inventus est sine macula , et qui post 
aurum non abiit , nec speravit in pecunia et thesauris. 
Quis est hie, et laudabimus zte 


Fecit enim mirabilia in vi-ta su-a. De-o gra-ti-as. 

') If the Feast be a duplex, the Psalm is not intoned until the 
whole antiphon is sung through by the choir. 

2 ) From Holy Thursday till Saturday before Low Sunday, and in 
the Office for the Dead there is no capiiulum. 


Should the last be a word of one syllable, as in the 
Cap. Epipli. Domini : Surge illuminare, — on the 3 d Sun- 
day of Advent , — on the Ascension &c. ; then it ends 
with the accentus a cuius as in the Little Chapter at 
Prime: Begi scecidorum, as follows: 

Su-per te or-ta est. In sae-cu-la sae-cu-16-rum. A-men. 

The Response Deo Gratias remains always the same. 

In Dominica et die solemni the Chanter gives the 
first words of the Hymn 1 ) to the officiating priest, 
who repeats them. On other occasions he himself in- 
tones them. 

The Hymn is followed by a versicle and response 
sung as at page 183; in Paschal time an Alleluia is 
added. The Antiphon for the Benedictus, in Dominica 
et die solemni is given by the Chanter to the officiating 
priest; otherwise he intones it himself. The Benedictus 
is intoned by one or more chanters according to the 
dignity of the Festival, but always solemniter (see 
Page 174), and sung in alternate choirs to the end. 

When the singing of the Antiphon is concluded, the 
officiating priest sings Dominus vobiscum, and then the 
Prayer (see Pages 118, 119 and 120). 

The Preces when prescribed are sung alternately 
by the officiating priest and the choir, after the manner 
of the versicles in commemorations (Toni versiculorum 
in commemoratione) which we are just about to give. 

In Commemorations 2 ) the versicle in Dominica 
et die solemni should be intoned by two or more 

') When there is no capitulum, there is no hymn: the last strophe 
is often 1 varied according to the season. (See above, page 181.) 

*) A Commemoration occurs when two or more Feasts fall on 
the one day. As only one office can be recited completely, the feast 


chanters, at other times a binis musicis vel ab uno. The 
versicles and responses to the Preces, Commemorationes T 
Antiphons of the B. V. M., before the Oratio Ss. Sacra- 
menti, at Processions, Benedictions, and on other s>uch 
occasions, are sung as follows. 

Toni Versieulorum in Commemorat. &c. 

Of. Ora pro nobis j sancta Dei Ge - ni - trix. 

I£. Ut digni efficiamur j promissionibus Chri - sti. 

In a monosyllabic ending of the versicle the accen- 
tus acutus is employed, as follows: 

t. Fiat j 

: -=-«-3-^ 

misericordia tua D6mi-ne super nos. 
idmodum speravimus in te. 

w— *— * — 


Of. Angelis suis Deus man-da-vit de te. 

The Tone of the Prayers in Commemorations is the 
same as that for the principal prayer. 

II. After the Prayer and prescribed commemorations 
the officiating priest sings: Bominus vobiscum. In Do- 
minica et die solemni, 'the Benedicamus Bomino is sung 
by two or more chanters, on other occas;ons by two or 
even one of the choir, — a binis ffiusieis vel ab uno, — 
to one or other of the following chants : 

of higher rank takes precedence, and the other feasts are commemo- 
rated in Lauds and vespers. To this class also belong the Suffragia 
Sanctorum which are found in the Direct, and Breviary before Com- 
pline, and except on duplicia and infra Octavas should, at certain 
seasons of the year, notified in the Directory, always be said. 


Toni Benedieamus pro Officio. 

1. In Festo solemni. 

Be-ne-di-camus Do - o o - o-o - mino. 

De - - o gra - ti-as. 

2. De beata Virgine. 1 ) 

Be - ne-di-ca-mus Do - mi -no. 
De - gra - ti-as. 

3. De Apostolis, et in Festis Duplicibus. 

Be-ne-di - ca - mus Do - - - mi-no. 

De - gra-ti-as. 

4. In Dominicis, (etiam Adventus et Quadrag.) Semidupl. et infra 
Octav., qua? non sunt B. M. V. 

Be -ne-di-ca-mus Do - - mi -no. 
De - gra - - ti-as. 

5. A Vesp. Sabbati sancti usque ad Yesp. sequentis Sabb. exclus. 

Be-ne-di-ca-mus D6-mi-no, al-le-lu-ja, al - le - lu - ja. 
De-o gra-ti-as, al-le-lu-ja, al-le - lu - ja. 

' ) Et in vesper is Ferice VI., quanclo fit seq. Sabbato off. de B.V.M. 
also during the octaves of Christmas and Corpus Christi, and on all 
Feasts where the Hymn closes with Jesu tibi sit gloria. 



6. In Festis simplicibus ad Matutin, Laudes et Vesper, 
e d e dc ha cdfed 

Be-ne-di- ca-mus Do - mi-no. 
De - o gra - ti- as. 

7. In Feriali Offici6 per totum annum ad Vesp., Matut. et Laudes. 

Be-ne-di - ca - mus D6-mi-no. 
De o gra-ti-as. 

8. In Officio Defunctorum. 

Re-qui-e- scant in pa-ce. I£. A-men. 

The above eight chants are used at the close of 
Matins, Lauds and Vespers only. 

The following Benedicamus is employed at Prime, 
Terce, Sext, None and Compline, as well in Festis so- 
lemnibus, duplic. as in semidupl. simplic. ac Feriis. 

9. In horis minoribus ac Completorio. 

Be-ne-di-ca-mus D6-mi-no. 

De - o gra - ti - as. 

The Benedicamus is followed immediately by Fide- 

c a 

Hum animce per miser i cor diam Dei requiescant in pa-ce. 

a c 

A-men. If an Antiphon of the B.Y. M. should terminate 
Lauds then the officiating priest, after a Pater noster in 

c a 

silence, sings : Bominus det nobis suam pa-cem. I£. Et 

[l a c 

vitam ceternam. A-men. in the tone of a versicle. The 


entire Office is closed by Divinmn auxilhim maneat sem- 
per nobiscum which the officiating priest chants in a sub- 
dued voice , and the choir answers Amen on the same 
note and in the same subdued voice. 

CHAPTER 31st. 


I. At Prime, after the preparatory Pater, Ave and 
Credo, said in silence, the officiating priest sings Bern 
in adjutorium as at page 178. The Hymns at Prime, 
Terce, Sext and None have (according to the season) 
different melodies, and are generally sung to the same 
melody as the Hymn at Matins or Lauds, if the latter 
be in the same metre. 

Observation. This general rule is set forth in the 
Direct Chori as follows: In the Offic. de Temp, in Advent 
and Lent (in Domin. et Feriis) the melody of the Hymn 
for Lauds is employed. In Passiontide, that of the Vexilla 
Regis. At Christmas and during its octave, the melody of 
the Jesu Redemptor answers ; on the Epiphany and within 
its octave the Crudelis Herodes. At Easter and during its 
octave, and on all Feasts occurring within that period, 
even though the Office be not de Tempore, the Ad regias 
gives the chant ; on the Ascension and during its octave, 
the Salutis humance; on Pentecost and during its octave 
the Jam Chris tus; l ) and on Trinity Sunday , the Jam sol 
recedit. On Corpus Christi , and on all Feasts of the 
B. V. M. with their octaves, and whenever the hymns 
should close with Jesu tibi sit gloria, the hymn Quern terra 
furnishes the chant: on the Feast of the Transfiguration, 
the Salutis humance , and on All Saints , the Placare 
Christe. On Feasts of Apostles and Evangelists, and in 

') The Hymn at Terce during the octave of Pentecost is the Veni 
Creator Spiritus, which of course has its own special chant. 



duplicibus, when the hymns of the minor hours are not 
written in the same metre as those at Lauds or Matins; 
as for example, on the feasts of St. John the Baptist^ 
Dedicatio S. Michaelis, the Angels guardian, Dedication of 
a Church &c. and during their octaves, the melody of the 
JLterna Christi munera is always adopted, also in Comm. 
plurim. Marty rum sub rilu duplici. Within the octave 
however of a Feast de Comm. plur. Martyr, or when it is 
only a semidouhle, the Hymns at the minor hours are 
chanted to the melody of the Rex gloriose Marty rum. The 
same melody answers in the Office of Comm. Conf. Pont., 
and non Pont., Virg. and non Virg. whether doubles or semi- 
doubles. For the most part the chants of the Hymns are 
specially given in the Directorium. 

The Hymn Jam lucis at Prime is omitted on the 
three last days of Holy Week, and in Easter week. The 
Antiphon before the Psalms is merely intoned, (first 
word or two) and is generally the 1 st antiphon of Lauds. 
On Sundays, Ferias and Vigils, it is found in the Psal- 
terium or Propr. de Tempore, on principal Feasts in the 
Propr. de Temp, and on Feasts of Saints in the Propr. 
or Commune Sanctorum. 

The Intonation of the Antiphon is given by the of- 
ficiating priest ; the Psalms are intoned and continued by^ 
the Choir, after the chant given in Chapters 27 or 28. 

The Psalms at Prime vary according to the season 
or rank of the Office. On Sundays and Ferias, now one. 
now another Psalm, is added to the 53 d and the two 
sections of the 118 th , which are invariably sung. 

The officiating priest sings the Capitulum as at 
page 190. The Responsoria brevia, or short responses 
with the versicle that immediately follows, should at 
all the minor hours be sung by two chanters of the 
capella musicorum ; on Vigils, Advent, Lent and Quarter- 
tense Ferias by one only. 

The melody of the Besponsorium breve is at all the 
minor hours of the Ecclesiastical year usually the same. 


the difference of text sometimes making slight altera- 
tions ; this melody is found in extenso in the Dir. cJiori. 

Toni "Responsorii brevis. 


Chri-sti fi - li De - i vi - vi, * Mi - se - re - re no-bis. 
The choir repeats the entire Responsorium. 
? . ab -I a g f g g' a 

H^=^£^^==W=*^*£^*^ii^^ Choir: Miserere nobis. 
T. Qui se-des ad de-xteram Patris. 

G16-ri-a Pa-tri, et Fi-li-o et Spi-ri-tu-i san-cto. 

Chorus: Christe Fili Dei vivi, miserere nobis. if. Exsurge Christe 
adjuva nos. I£. Et libera nos propter nomen tuum. (As at pages 183 
or 184 b »)or c .) 

In Paschal time and on several feasts during the 
jear two Alleluias are added, and then the chant runs 
as follows: 

Cbri-ste Fi-li De-i vi-vi, mi -se -re -re no-bis. * Al-le- 

yjj H~~jj":j "V" - ^ H Chorus repetit Bespons. 

lu-ja, al-le -lu-ja. 

^ +— ig~giz:^z^N— > *~z:z Choir: Alleluja, alleluja. 

'if. Qui stir-re- xf-sti a mor-tu-is. 

G16-ri-a Pa-tri, et Ff-li-o, et Spi-ri-tu'-i sancto. 
Chorus: Christe Fili Dei vivi miserere nobis, * alleluja, alleluja. 
Vers, with Alleluia (p. 183, b), in fest. simpl. et cliebus fer. c) p. 184). 

') This versicle (after the Resp. br.) is chanted as at page 183 b), in 
fest. solemn, dupl. et semidupl., in fest. simp, et feriis as at c) page 184. 


Then the officiating priest sings the Preces if pre- 
scribed, in the ordinary versicle-tone, page 192, Domi- 
nus vobiscum and the prayer Domine Dens as at page 120 
or 121; Dominus vobiscum and Benedicamus Domino as 
at page 194, N° 9. 

After the Benedicamus (and its response) Deo gra- 
tias , the Martyrology is read in choir. 1 ) The reader 
without asking the blessing, reads the martyrology for 
the day immediately following 2 ) in the Tone of a 
Lesson; see page 186. 

-|§ — W — ♦— *— j — * -* — W — I— jj: 

Ca-Iendis Ja^nu-a -ri- i, lu-na pri-ma Circumcisio Do- 

mini nostri Jesu Christi, | et Octava Nativitatis e-jus-dem. 

On monosyllables, thus : ^EEE^SE^g pagTme. 

a-de-pta est. 

At the close he adds : Et alibi aliorum plurimorum 
8s. Martyrum et Confessorum atgue sanctarum 

i— w- 

Vi'r - gi - num. Chorus : fy. De - o gra - ti - as. 

In Vigilia Nat. Domini 2 ) the reader ascends a fourth 
when he comes to the words "In Bethlehem;" thus: 


In Bethlehem Judae nascitur ex Maria Virgine factus ho-mo. 

Then louder, — solemniori modo, et in tono Pas- 
sionis, he sings the following passage: 

') On the three last days of Holy Week there is no Martyrology. 
2 ) For the special rite of this portion of the office on this day 
see in the Martyrology itself. 


Nativitas D6mini nostri Je-su Christi secundum car-nem. 

For the concluding sentences he returns to the Tonus 
Lectioms as in the beginning. 

After the Martyrology the officiating priest sings, 
alternately with the Choir, in versicle- tone (p. 192): 
Pretiosa, then Sancta Maria (in ton.fer. p. 121), Beus 
in acljutorium in versicle-tone , the prayer Birigere as 
at p. 121. The Lectio brevis as at p. 186. 

II. Terce, Sext, and None after a preparatory 
Pater and Ave in silence, begin with Beus in acljuto- 
rium as at page 178. Each hour has its own special 
Hymn, the melody of which will be varied according 
to season , (see Observation in the present chapter). 
The Antiphon for Terce is usually the second of Lauds, 
for Sext the third, for None the fifth. For the Sun- 
days from Septuagesima untill Holy Week, there are 
special antiphons for the minor hours, indicated in the 
Propr, de Temp. ; on all other Sundays and Ferias they 
are found in the Psalterium. The Psalms in all Offices 
are for each hour the same , namely three portions of 
the 118 tn Psalm, each portion closing with a Gloria 
Patri. The first verse of each portion should, according 
to the rank of the festival, be intoned. The chant for 
the Besp. br. is the same as that for Prime, unless a 
special Besp. be indicated in the Psalterium. 

Observation. In many places the solemn celebration 
of None is customary on Ascension Day and Pentecost 
Sunday. The rules already given are applicable here, but 
the antiphon and Besp. br. is as follows: 

Ant. in Ascens. Ton. VIII. Fin. 1. 

Vi-den-ti-bus il - lis. Ps. 118. Mirabflia testimdnia. 


Ant. in Pentec. Ton. VIII. Fin. 2. 

Lo-que-bantur. Ps 118. Mirabilia testimonia. 

Besp. br. 

2— IF 

Jw Ascens. Ascendo ad Patrem rae-um. 
In Pentec. Repleti sunt omnes 

l 1 

et Pa-trem vestrum, * 
Spi-ri - tu san-cto, * 

.ST " 

Al-le-lu-ja, al-le-lu-ja. TJ A , , ^ 

. , , . , . . , . Bepet. Ascendo or Repleti. 
Al-le-lu-ja, al-le-lu-ja. 

! 1 

t. De-um meum , et Deum vestrum. Bepet. Alleluja, alleluja. 

t. Et cce - - perunt lo-qui. " 

Then Gloria Patri, see page 197. Repeat Ascendo or 
Repleti. ^. Ddminus in coslo, Alleluia, or Loquebdntur &c. 
as at page 183. b. Ddminus vobiscum, the Prayer as at 
page 120. Then Dominus vobiscum, Benedicamus Domino, 
as at page 194, 9. Terce, Sext and None are closed with 
Fidelium animce, as at page 194. 

CHAPTER 32'd. 

I. Most Feasts have two Vespers, the first on 
the Vigil, and the second on the evening of the Feast. 
The Directory or Ordo must be consulted in order to 
know the Vespers for each Feast, If they be 1st Vespers 
of the following day, then the Ordo says, Vesperw de 
sequenti (Vespers of 'the following): if Vespers of the day 
itself, they are described: In II.Yesp. (in 2 nd vespers); 


if finally the Vespers be divided, i. e. the first portion 
be given to the Office of the Feast being celebrated, 
and the 2 nd portion to the Feast of the following day, 
then the direction is: Vesp. a capitulo ds sequenti; i.e. 
vespers from the Little Chapter of the following: the 
Capitulum or Little Chapter being the point of division. 
The Vespers are arranged in the same way as Lands, 
namely 5 antiphons, 5 Psalms (which vary with the 
Feast), the Little Chapter, Hymn, Versicle and Response 
and the Magnificat instead of the Benedictus. Then the 
Prayer and Commemorations. 

After the Priest has recited in silence the prepar- 
atory prayer, he intones Deus in adjutorium as at p. 178. 
The Choir answers with Domine ad adjuvandum &c. . . 
Alleluia (from Septuagesima till Easter "Laus tibi Do- 
mine" dec instead of the Alleluia). Then follow the 

5 Antiphons and Psalms. If the Feast be of higher rank 
than a semi-duplex, the entire antiphon should be sung 
both before and after the Psalm: 1 ) if of a semi-double or 
any lower rank, only the first word or two is intoned 
before the Psalm, and the entire Antiphon is sung after. 
The Antiphons should in all cases be commenced by one 
or two Chanters, and then continued by the full choir. 
In the same way with regard to the Psalms, the first 
verse of each Psalm should be intoned by the Cantor es, 2 ) 
and then sung through alternately by both sides of the 
choir. As soon as the 5 th Psalm and its Antiphon are 
concluded the Priest sings the Little Chapter as at p. 190, 
the choir answering Deo Gratias , and then the Hymn 
is sung. The same ceremony is observed in the in- 

') When the Organ accompanies, the antiphon after the Psalm 
may be recited submissa voce on the reciting note of the mode; the 
organ continuing to play. 

2 ) When the Organ is played the 1 st verse of each Psalm should 
be intoned without accompaniment. 


tonation of the Hymn as at Lauds. After the Hymn 
comes the versicle and response as at page 183; and 
then the Antiphon before the Magnificat. The Magnificat 
is intoned by the Chanters, as at p. 175 or 176, and 
sung through by both sides of the choir alternately ; the 
solemn intonation (or initium) being observed with each 
verse. The Magnificat concluded, its antiphon is repeated, 
and then the Priest sings Dominus vobiscum and the 
Prayer (as at page 120). If any Commemorations or 
the Preces be prescribed, the same order is observed 
with regard to them as already described in Lauds. 
After the last Prayer follows Dominus vobiscum; — 
Beneclicamus Domitio (see p. 192 — 193), Fidelium ani- 
mce dbc. on one note and in a subdued voice. 

II. Completorium or Compline is usually joined 
to Vespers, and is almost invariable. The official Direct. 
Ghori gives Compline in its entirety, antiphons and psalms. 
The melody of the Hymn varies according to the rule 
given in Observation, page 195. The Confiteor before 
the Psalms, should be recited, not sung, by the offic- 
iating Priest and Choir. The Besponsoria brevia, have 
a special chant given in the Direct. Chori. The Canticle 
Nunc Dimittis is always in the 3 d Tone l 3t ending, and 
is intoned in the same way as the Psalms and sung to 
the end. The Preces, if prescribed are sung as indicated 
at p. 192, the prayer Visita as at p. 120 or 121, and 
Benedicamus page 194, N° 9. After the Benedicamus 
the dignior Chori sings Benedicat et custodiat nos omni- 
potens et misericors Dominus. 1$. Amen. 

Then follows immediately one of the Anthems of the 
B. V. M. according to the season. 

From Advent till Candlemas exclusive. Till Holy Thursday. 

Al ma. 

A - ve. 


From Easter to Trinity Sunday exclusive. 

From Trinity till Advent, 

Ke-gi-na coe-li. Sal-ve. 
The Chant for these Anthems is given in full in the 
Direct. Chori p. 60* — 64*. The Prayers after the Au- 
thems are sung in Tono feriali p. 121. Divinum auxilium 
maneat semper nobiscum. B. Amen, is recited in a low 
tone of voice, on one note and without any inflection. 




I. On all Sundays throughout the year Holy Water 
is sprinkled on the altar, choir and congregation, be- 
fore the principal Mass. The Celebrant intones : *) 

Infra Tempus Paschale. 

From Easter until Trinity Sunday exclusive. 
ga afag gag g 

zE^^b:=— — — — :oe= The Choir follows after with: Egre- 
rp_«£jyta=^:r*=it- dientem. Grad. Rom. or Ord. Missce p. 2*. 
Vi - di a - quam. 

Sac. Hf. Ostende nobis Domine misericordiam tuam, Al-le-lu-ja. 

Chor. Et salutare tuum da nobis* Al-le-lu-ja. 

Sac. t. Domine exaudi oration em meam. 

Chor. Et clamor mens ad te veniat. 

Sac. f. Dominus vobiscum. 

Chor. Et cum spiritu tuo. Oratio in tono fer. p. 121. 

') Sacerdos, inclinatione aut genuflexione facta, flectit utroque genu 
super intimum gradum altaris, accipit aspersorium, et incipiens cantare 
antiphonam Asperges vel Vidi aquam, cantando ter aspergit altare &c. 


Extra Tempus Pasc^ale. 

1^1 tzz^zzz^~7^r The Choir continues with : Domine hys- 

= ^ = jji— tjZLH^iZL-^jt sfyo, as in page 1* of the Grad. Bom. or 
A-sper-ges me. Ordinarium Missce. 

Should the Celebrant commence the intonation of 
the Asperges with d for the first note (d, e, | g, f#, e, | 
f% g, | a,) the choir can easily continue in the same 
pitch with bt}, c, d, &c. ; should he however choose a 
higher note, then, on account of the high range of the 
piece, it being in the 7 th Tone, a transposition becomes 
necessary, either to the original setting, or that commen- 
cing with d. On Passion and Palm-Sundays the Gloria 
Patri is omitted, and the Antiphon repeated immediately 
after the f. Miserere. Versicle (without Alleluia), &c. 
and Prayer as with Vidi aqitam. 

IL On the Feast of St. Mark, and on the Ro- 
gation Days, (the three days immediately preceding 
Ascension Thursday) the Litany of the Saints should be 
sung as in the Birectorium Chori, p. [63]. *) On Easter 
Saturday and the Vigil of Pentecost the beginning and 
end of the Litany differ in a few notes from the chant 
prescribed for Rogation week ; on these two days more- 
over several invocations are omitted and the order of 
the Virgins is changed. 2 ) The Litany for these two oc- 
casions will be found at page 224 of the Graduate Bo- 

*) Duo can tores litanias cantare incipiunt, ceteris singulos versus 
eadem voce respondentibus. If there be a custom of singing the Litany 
divided, (thus, Cantores : Sancta Maria, Chorus : Ora pro nobis, or Can- 
tores one entire invocation with its Response, and the Choir the follow- 
ing one in like manner) this is tolerated. But the rule for the 
repetition of each verse and Response by the choir, remains. S. R. C. 
1G. Sept. 1865. 

2 ) On these two , days it is not allowed to curtail the singing of 
the Litany ; each invocation and response must be sung in full by the 
chanters, ' and repeated by the choir. 


manum (8 m ). We subjoin here a few of the invocations 
for sake of practice. Special attention is directed to the 
minor third d, bfc), and not b flat as is commonly heard 
at the word Bens (in Pater de ccelis Bens) and all si- 
milarly inflected words. 

1. On Easter Saturday and Vigil of Pentecost. 

e a 

Kj-ri-e e-le-i-son. Chri-ste e-le-i-son. Ky-ri-e 

_ _a_ga f_ 

e-le-i-son. Chri-ste au-di nos. Chri-ste ex-au-di nos. 
c d h h a h c 

Pater de coelis De-us, Mi- se -re- re no-bis. 

Sancta Ma - - n-a, O-ra pro no-bis. 
Omnes sancti Do - ctores, O-rate pro no-bis. 

Omnes Sancti, et Sanctae De-i, In-ter-ce-di-te pro no-bis. 

Pro-pi - ti - us e - sto , Par - ce no - bis D6-mi-ne. 

Pro-pi - ti - us e - sto , Ex - au - di nos D6-mi-ne. 

Ab o-mni ma-lo, Li - be - ra nos D6-mi-ne. 

In di - e ju - di - cii, " " " " " 

Pec-ca - to -res , Te ro-ga-mus au-di nos. 


c d h 

1—3. A -gnus De-i, qui tol-lis pec-ca-ta mundi, 
c d e . 

1. par-ce no -bis D6-mi-ne. 

2. ex - aU - di nos Do - mi - ne. 

3. mi - se - re - re no - bis. 

Chri-ste au - di nos. Chri-ste ex-au-di nos. 

At this point the Choir begins immediately the Kyrie 
of the Mass ; on Easter Saturday at p. 6* of the Grad. 
Bom.; on the Vigil of Pentecost at page 9*. 

2. At the Procession on St. Mark's day, the Rogation days, and 
on other occasions. 

Before the Procession the Ritual prescribes the An- 
tiphon JExurge JDomine. 1 ) 

c h a h a g a 

Ky-ri-e e-le-i-son. Christe e-le-i-son. Ky-ri-e e-4e- 
a ga f g a 

i-son. Christe au-di nos. Christe ex-au-di nos. 

Pater de cwlis. Sancta Maria. PropUius esto. Pecca- 
tores. Agnus Dei &c. 2 ) as above under N°l, and as in 

') See the Bit Bom. page 225. and Grad. Bom. page 379. 

2 ) On the occasion of the canonization of the Japanese Martyrs 
8. June 1862, the Times correspondent thus describes the chanting of 
the Litany. (Times June 16.) "The Papal singers chanted the Kyrie 
eleison, and the words were taken up and passed from wave to wave 
of this vast sea, and the Litany of the Saints was sung by thousands, 
producing such a body of sound as I had never heard before, and 


the Direct. Chori p. [63] &c. Then follows Christe audi 
nos, Christe exaudi nos, Kyrie eleison, Christe eleison, as 
above under N° 2, and at the close: 

Ky-ri-e e - le - i - son. 

The Psalm Beits in adjutorium is sung alternately 
in Tono feriali (Ton. VI.) ; the Verse and Resp. as at 
page 192. 

If the Prayers conclude with the clausula majori 
or longer ending, then they are sung in Tono simpl. > 
fer. page 120; if with the clausula minori or shorter 
ending, in Tono feriali, page 121. After the Dominus 
vobiscum the two Chanters sing 

t. Exaudiat nos omm'potens et mi-se-ricors Doftiinus. A - men. 

y. JEt fidelium animoz is recited in a low voice, and 
its response Amen on the same note. 

CHAPTER 34th. 


I. The five Prayers at the Blessing of the Candles 
on the Feast of the Purification (Febr. 2 nd ) are all 
sung in tono simplici feriali page 120. During the 
distribution of the candles, the choir sings : Lumen ad 
revelationem (Grad. Bom. page 378). 

electrifying every one who had the slightest feeling." (See Prose and 
Verse by the Rev. Dr. Murray of Maynooth College. Appendix p. 130.) 


Before the Procession : Exsurge Domine is sung, 
(Grad. Bom. p. 379). The Priest then sings the Prayer 
Exaudi nos, (if after Septuagesima with a previous Fle- 
ctamus genua &c. p. 122) in tono feriali, p. 121 and the 
Deacon turning to the people sings, in versicle-tone : 


z !l — h-h— w — n— IF^ iP^'F 1 ^ — n — w — nF ^E^:^ 

-I q=i=z=q=jb3:b:p=^q j£= 

$\ Proce-damus in pa-ce. In no-mi-ne Christi. A-men. 

During the Procession the Choir sings the Antiphon: 
Adorna thalamum or Besponsum accepit ; when re-enter- 
ing the Church, Obhderunt pro eo: Grad. Bom. p. 380 — 
383, Bit. Bom. p. 245—248. 

II. On Ash- Wednesday before the blessing of the 
ashes the choir sings the antiphon: Exaudi nos, with 
the Psalm-verse Salvum me fac, Gloria Patri &e. and 
then repeats the Antiphon (Grad. Bom. p. 73). 

The four prayers which follow are sung in tono fe- 
riali, p. 122. Whilst the ashes are being distributed, 
the choir sings the Antiphon: Immutemur habitu , or 
Inter vestihdum, and at the close: Emendemus in melius 
with the y. Adjuva nos and Gloria Patri (Grad. Bom. 
p. 73 — 76). The Prayer after the distribution is sung 
in To no feriali, p. 122. 

III. After the Asigerges, on Palm Sunday the Bless- 
ing of the Palms commences with the Antiphon Hosanna 
filio David (Grad. Bom. page 167 or Ojficium majoris 
Hebdomadce p. 2). The Prayer, Deus quern diligere is 
sung by the Priest, in tono simplici feriali, p. 121, 2. 
Then comes the Epistle as at p. 126. As a Gradual, 
the Choir sings Collegerunt Pontifces or In monte Oliveti 
(Graduate Bom. p. 168 and 169, or Officium majoris 
Hebdomadce p. 3 and 5) and then the Deacon follows 
with the Gospel more consueto, p„ 130. The Prater Auge 


fidem in tono simpl. fer. page 120. The Preface in 
tono feriali. The Choir sings Sanctus and Benedictus to 
a chant identical with that of the Missa pro Defunctis 
(see Grad.Bom. p. 170). Of the six Prayers which now 
follow, the fourth : Bens qui per Olives ramum is sung 
as at page 121, the others in tono simpl. fer. p. 120. 
During the Distribution of Palms the Choir sings : Pueri 
Hebrceorum {Grad.Bom. p. 171 or Offtc. maj. Hebdom. 
p. 12). The Prayer Omnipotens in tono feriali p. 121. 

When the Procession is about to move the Deacon 
sings: Procedamus in pace, p. 208. The Choir during 
the procession sings one or other of the Antiphons : Cum 
appropinquaret , Gum audisset popidus 9 Ante sex dies, 
Occurrunt turbce, Cum angelis, Turba midta, (Grad. Bom. 
p. 172-177, Bit. Bom, p. 248-252; Offic. maj. Hebd, p. 
13-18). On the return of the Procession, two or four 
chanters enter the Church and sing the first two verses 
of the Hymn: Gloria laus. The Celebrant and Pro- 
cession who remain outside, repeat it. The Chanters 
then sing the five following Strophes, 1 ) the procession 
answering after each strophe with the words Gloria laus, 
as follows : 

G16ri-a, laus, et ho-nor, ti-bi sit, Rex Christe, Redemptor: 

cu-i pu-e-ri-le de-cus prom-psit Ho - sail - na pi-um. 

When the Sub deacon knocks at the door with the foot 
of the Cross, the door is opened and the Procession enters 
the Church, singing Ingrediente Domino. 

') Omnes, vel partim, prout videbitur. 



IV. At the Blessing of the Fire 1 ) on Easter Satur- 
day, the 5 grains of incense to be fixed in the Paschal 
candle are also blessed. The Deacon who is charged 
with the benedictio cerei Pasclialis, enters the Church with 
the procession, bearing the triple candle, and sings three 
times during the procession, each time raising his voice : 

Lu-men Chri-sti. Chorus. De-o gra-ti-as. 

The Chant for the Blessing of the Paschal Candle 
called the prceconium paschate or Exultet; it has a 
great similarity with the chant of the Preface, and per- 
haps surpasses it in beauty and simplicity. We give it 
in full. 2 ) 

Ex - ul - tet j am An-ge - li - ca tur-ba coe-16 - rum : ex-sul - tent 
di-vi-na my-ste -ri-a: et pro tan-ti Re-gis vi-cto-ri-a 
tu-ba in -so-net sa-lu- ta -ris. Gau - de-at et tel-lus tan-tis 

i - ra - di - a - ta f ul-go : ri -bus : et ae-ter-ni Re-gis splendore 

') The Prayers at the Blessing of the Fire are only recited not 
sung; see foot note page 121. 

8 ) Baini in Vol. 2. of his Memorie Storico-CriticJie page 93 in the 
note, cites a most ancient manuscript of the 9 th century preserved in 
the Library of Monte Cassino, and containing the chant of the Exultet 
note for note as we give it here. It was composed by Landulph who 
was Bishop of Capua A. D. 851. 


il-lu-stra-ta, to-tf-us or-bis se sen-ti-at a - mi-sfs-se 
ca-H - ginem. Lae-te-tur et mater Ec cle-si- a. tan-ti 
lu-mi-nis ad-or-na-ta ful-go - ri-bus: et magnis po-pu-16-rum 

vo-ci-bus haec au-la re-sul-tet. Qua-pro-pter ad-stan- 

rt==r=q=tiq=z?iz=^=zz=d m =z 

tes vos, fra-tres ca-n's si-mi. ad tarn mi-ram hu-jus san-cti 

~p~~T " — ~ H ~ + -"I— WH — 1— — r H-n H-i 

lu-mi-nis cla-ri - ta-tem, u-na me-cum, quae-so, De-i o-mni- 

po-ten-tis mi - se -ri-cor-di-am in-vo-ca- te. Ut qui me 

non me-is me-ri-tis in-tra Le-vi-ta-rum numerum dig-na- 

n — m -♦— w 33ird :q qz=q *— w ^ — 

tus est ag-gre-ga - re: lu-minissu-i cla-ri -ta-tem in-fun - 

dens, Ce-re-i hu-jus laudem im-ple-re per - fi - ci -at. 

Per D6 - minum no-strum Je-sum Christum Fi -li-um su - um : 



= ^ P -P — P - ♦ — ♦ — P — *~ — ♦— P— P — p — ♦— p--w 

qui cum e-o vi-vit et reg-nat in u - ni-ta- te Spi-ri-tus 

a , e g a li 

san-cti De-us. Per d-mni-a sae-cu-la sae cu-16-rum. 

_ _ g _ a __^ | \ | 

]£. A-men. Hr. D6-mi-nrs vo bis-cum. 1£. Etcum Spi'-ri-tu tu-o. 
c li ah ag c li 

t. Sur-sum cor-da. R. Ha-bemus ad D6-mi-num. t. Gra-ti-as 
b g 

b _P _ ■ _ W— >- N — w — n— W— ii — j:|E — ^— ■ — w — w_ ♦ — p ^p**- 

a-ga-musP6-mi-no De-o nostro. Dignum et justum est. 

-■ — ♦ — ♦ — p — p-F-g — ♦- is— ♦- ♦— p- 

Ve-re di-gnum et ju-stum est, in-vi - si-bi-lem De-um Pa-trem 

■-♦-p-j— p- w - 

o-mni-po-ten-tem, Fi-li-umque e-jus u-ni-j 

?e-nitnm, D6- 


-p— P— P— p-** 

mi-num nostrum Je-sum Cliristum, to -to cordis ac men-tis 
af-fe-c;u, et vo-cis mi-ni-ste-ri - per- so- na- re. 
Qui pro no-bis ae-*er-no Pa-tri, ;A-dae de-bi-tum sol-vit : 
et ve-te-ris pi-a-cu-li cau-ti - 6-nem pi-o cru-6 - re 


de ter-sit. Haec sunt e-nim fe-sta Pa - scba-li - a, in qui' 


bus ve-rus il-le A-gnus oc-ci- di-tur, cu-jus san-gui-ne po - 


stes fi - de-li-um con-se-cran-tur. Haec nox est, in qua 

:* — ♦— W — * — W-+ -H— ■ -♦-■-^ z+^n —m—m-*r- 

pri-mum pa-tres nostros. fi- li-os I-sra-el, e-du-ctos de 


Ae-gyp-to, Ma - re ru-brum slc-co ve-sti'-gi - o tran-si - re 

♦ — ■ 


fe-ci - sti. Haec i-gi-tur nox est, quae pec-ca-to-rum te-ne - 

bras, co-lumnae il - lu-mi-na-ti - 6 - ne pur-ga-vit. Haec nox 


est, quae ko-di - e per u - ni-ver-sum raundum, in Chri-sto 

--\-m — 

— =q— : 

cre-den-tes, a vi-ti-is sae-cu-li, et ca-lf-gi-ne pec- 
ca- to-rum se-gre-ga-tos, red - dit gra-ti-ae, so-ci-at 
san - cti-ta - ti. Haec nox est, in qua de-stru-ctis vin-cu-lis 


$=&CT3=i Lg= M-* -»=W---^ B — icfe^rfazdi: 

mor-tis, Chri-stus ab fn-fe-ris vi-ctor a-sc£n-dit. Ni-hil 

e-nim no-bis na-sci pro-fu-it, ni-si re-di-mi pro-fu-is - 

set, ' mi-ra cir-ca nos tu-ae pi-e-ta-tis di-gna 

ti - o ! in - ae-sti-ma-bi-lis di - le-cti-o ca - ri - ta - tis : 

j ,, J-^_l - t — ^ 

ut servum re-di'-me-res, Fi-li-um tra -di-df- sti ! cer-te 

ne-ces-sa-ri-um A-dae pec-ca-tum, quod Chri-sti mor-te de- 
le- turn est! fe-lix cul-pa, quae ta-lem, ac tan-turn 

me-ru-it ha-be-re' Re-dem-pto-rem ! ve-re be-a-ta 

nox, quae so-la me-ru-it sci-re tem-pus et ho-ram, in qua 

Christus ab fn-fe-ris re- sur-re -xit ! Haec nox est, de qua 

scri-ptum est: Et nox si -cut di-es il- lu-mi - na - bi-tur: 


Et nox il-lu-mi-na-ti-o me a in de-li - ci-is me- is. 


Hu-jus i-gi-tur san-cti-fi-ca-ti- o no-ctis, fu - gat sce-le - 

ra, cul-pas la -vat: et red-dit in-no-centi-am la-psis, et 

moe-stis lae-ti-tiam. Fu-gat 6-di-a, concor-di-am 

pa -rat, et cur -vat im-pe-ri-a. 1 ) In hu-jus i-gi-tur 

w -»- w-^- 


no-ctis gra-ti-a, su-sci-pe sancte Pa-ter, in-cen-si hu-jus 

sa-cri-fi-ci-um ve-sper-ti'-num: quod ti-bi in hac Ce-re-i 
oh-la-ti - 6-ne so-le-mni, per mi-nistrorum manus de o- 

pe-ri-bus a-pum sa-crosancta red-dit Ec-cle-si-a. 

Sed jam co-lumnae hujus praec6-ni-a no-vi-mus, quam in 

') Hie Diaconus infigit quinque grana incensi benedicti in Cereo in 
modum Crucis, hoc or dine: 425 


ho-norem De-i ru-ti-Jans i-gnis ac-cen-dit. 1 ) Qui li-cet 


sit di-vf-sus in par-tes, mu-tu-a-ti ta-men lu-mi-nis de- 

tri-men-ta non no-vit. A- li-tur e-nim li-quanti-bus ce- 
ris, quas in substanti-am pre-ti - 6-sae hu-jus lam-pa-dis, 

a -pis ma -ter _ e - du - xit. 2 ) ve - re be - a - ta nox, 

quae ex-po-li - a -vit Ae - gy - pti-os , di - ta - vit He-braeos ! 

Nox, in qua ter-re-nis coe - le-sti- a , hu-ma-nis di-vi-na 

— g H — ♦— *-* 

jun-guntur. 0- ramus er-go te D6-mi-ne: ut \ Ce-re-us 

i - ste in ho-no-rem tu - i no-mi-nis con-se - cra-tus , ad no- 

ctis hu-jus ca-H-gi-nem de-stru-endim, in- de - ft -ci-ens per- 

5 ) Hie Diaconus accendit Cereum cum una ex tribus candelis in 
arundine positis. 

2 ) Hie accenduntur lampades. 


— x 

se-ve-ret. Et in o-do-rem su-a-vi-ta-tis ac - ce-ptus 
su-pernis lu-mi-na-ri-bus mi-sce-a- tur. Flammas e - jus 

lu-ci-fer ma-tu - ti - nus in-ve-ni-at. II -le, inquam, lu- 

ci-fer,. qui ne-scit oc-cd-suni. II -le, qui in-gressus ab 

in-fe-ris hu-ma-no ge-ne-ri se-re-nus il-lu-xit. Pre- 

•N — W — W-H- 


camur er-go te D6-mi-ne: ut nos fa-mu-los tu-os, om- 

nemque clerum, et de-vo-tfs-si-mum po-pu-lum, u-na 

■ ' 

cum be -a-tis-si-mo Pa-pa no-stro N. 

et An-ti-sti-te, 

no-stro N. 

— *ii=iiw=w- -i — w — n-— 

qui-e-te temporum con-ces-sa in his 



Pascha-libus gau-di- is , as - si-du - a pro-te-cti - 6 - ne re- 


ge-re, gu-ber-na-re , et conser-va-re di-gne-ris . . .') Per 

2 ) Oratio "Respice cum omni populo suo" in fine Prceconii 

Paschalis Sabbato Sancto, ob sublatum Romanorum imperium, non am- 
plim recitetur. S. R. Q. 14. Mart. 1861. 


e-undem Dominum nostrum Je-sum Christum FMi-um tu-um: 

-I — . — N-4 — — ♦— W -W — W — — W— ♦ — *— y- w — - 

=E==5z=q=z^qz=z^zzziqzz==zzzz=:qz=z=:q q=3t^ 

Qui tecum vi-vit et regnat in u-ni-ta-te Spi-ri-tus san-cti 

De-us: per 6-mni-a sae-cu-la sae-cu - 16-rum. A-men. 

The Blessing of the Paschal Candle is followed im- 
mediately hy the 12 Prophecies which are sung in the 
Tone of a Lesson; thus: 

Punctum. 31onosyllaba 

In princi'pio creavit Deus coe-lum et ter-ram. Dixi'tque 

Dixit ad 

et accentus acutus. Interrogatio. 

* ■— i 

Deus: fi-at lux. Quid vis, fi-li? Requievit 

eum: Abraham, A-braham. 

Sic finitur Prophetia. 

die septimo ab universe- opere, quod pa-trarat. 

Each Prophecy 1 ) is followed by Oremus, Flectamus 
genua and a Prayer in tono simpl. fer. p. 120. After the 
4 th , 8 th and 11 th Prophecies and before the Oremus, the 
Choir sings a Tractus, (see Grad. Rom. p. 219-223). 

Observation. The six Prophecies with their Prayers 
are sung in the same manner on the Vigil of Pentecost; 
the Choir singing a Tract after the 2 nd , 3 d and 4* n . 

V. In the Procession to the Baptismal Font the 
Tract Stmt cervus is sung by the Choir. The two Prayers 

') At the end of the 12 th Prophecy Oremus only and then the 
Prayer in tono simpl. fer. 


before the Preface, as at page 120. The Preface is in 
the same Chant as the Preface at the Mass. Towards 
the end of the Blessing, the following is sung by the 
Priest three times, raising the voice each time: 

Descendat in hanc ple-ni-tudinem fontis, vir-tus Spi-ritus sancti. 

The last note but one (e) serves as the first note for 
the repetition. Returning from the Font to the Altar 
two Chanters intone the Litany of the Saints in the 
curtailed form, (see Grad. Bom. p. 224) the Choir re- 
peating in full each invocation and response. The same 
takes place on the Vigil of Pentecost. 

CHAPTER 35th. 


I. Mass on Holy Thursday has little special about 
it 1 ) except in Cathedral Churches, where the Bishop con- 
secrates the Holy Oils. Twelve Priests, seven Deacons 
and seven Subdeacons assist the Bishop. The Mass pro- 
ceeds more consueto up to that part of the Canon where 
we meet the words "Per quern hsec omnia, Domine, 
semper bona creas," exclusive. The Bishop having 
assumed his mitre proceeds to the table prepared, and 
seats himself at it, facing the altar. Then the Arch- 
deacon sings, alta voce in tono lectionis : 

') The Organ is played at the Kyrie and Gloria, and at the latter 
the bells are rung 1 , alter which both Organ and Bells remain silent till 
the Gloria on Easter Saturday. 


- le - um in - fir - mo-rum. 

One of the Subdeacons with two acolytes retires to 
the Sacristy and brings the Oil of the Sick, which when 
consecrated is brought back in the same manner to the 
Sacristy. Then the Bishop having washed his hands, 
ascends the Altar and resumes the Mass at the words 
Per quern dec. and continues it up to the communion of 
the Chalice. Having administered Holy Communion to the 
Deacon, 2 ) Subdeacon and assistant Clergy, and placed in 
a vase specially prepared, the host consecrated for the 
ceremonies of the following day, he resumes his place at 
the table, and the Archdeacon sings in tono lectionis: 

-6 — m — ♦ — n — | — n — n- — *— =— 5E — 

:r=q= q=zzz=q~JL=lt= 

- le - um ad Sanctum Chrisma. 

And immediately adds in the same tone: 


♦ — ■ ■,— X — a — ♦ — *- 

- le - um Ca - te - chu-me- no-rum. 

The Bishop then puts incense in the thurible and 
blesses it more solito. Then the 12 priests, Deacons 
and Subdeacons with the Acolytes and other ministers 
go processionally to the Sacristy and bring, cum omni 
decore et reverentia the Oil of Chrism and the Oil of 
Catechumens. Returning to the altar they proceed in the 
following order; 1 st the Thurifer, then one Subdeacon bear- 
ing the cross between two Acolytes with lighted candles, 
then two Chanters, chanting the verses u O Bedemptor" 

Ton. II. ; 

Re-demptor, su - me car-men te- met con - ci-nen-ti-um. 

2 ) The Deacon standing at the Epistle side sings the Confiteor, as. 
at page 155. 


The choir repeats the same verse, and the Chanters 
continue the following verses as in Offic. maj.Hebd. p. 257; 
the Choir repeating after each, the verse u O Redemptor ,y 
as above. The Bishop then proceeds with the Blessing 
of the Chrism, as, in the Pontif. Rom. and Off. maj.Hebd. 
p. 259 et seqq. When the Blessing is completed, first 
the Bishop, and then the twelve priests in order, salute 
the consecrated Chrism saying : 

A - ve san-ctum Chrisma. 

This is sung three times by each, the voice being raised 
at every repetition. After the third salutation each one 
reverently kisses the edge of the vase containing the 
Holy Chrism, and retires to his place. 

The same ceremony is observed with the Oil of 
Catechumens, the consecration of which immediately fol- 
lows, except that instead of the word chrisma the word 
oleum is substituted : 

A - ve san- ctum 6 - le- um. 

Then the consecrated oils are brought back to the 
Sacristy with the same ceremony as before, the chanters 
continuing the verses Ut novetur sexus , and the choir 
answering each verse, with u O Redemptor" as before. 
Mass is then brought to a conclusion and preparations 
are made for bringing the consecrated Host to the Altar 
or Chapel prepared for its reception. The Range lingua 
is sung during the Procession. 

II. On (jood Friday a Lector reads the Prophecy 
Hmc dicit Rominus, as at page 219; the choir singing 
the Tract Romine audivi which follows. The Celebrant 
says Or emus, Flectamus genua dc. p. 122, the Prayer 


Deus, a quo (p. 120) in ton. simpl. fer. The Subdeacon 
sings , in Epistle tone , the lesson In diebus illis : and 
as soon as the Choir has concluded the Tract Eripe me, 
the Passion according to St. John is sung as on Palm- 
Sunday. From the words Post hcec autem the Deacon 
of the Mass sings the remainder in the usual Gospel 
tone. (p. 130.) The Priest then sings the nine prayers 
as at pages 123 &c. 

The Prayers concluded, the Priest at the unveiling 
of the cross intones the Antiphon JEcce lignum alone; 
from in quo salus the ministers join him, and the choir 
answers with Venite adoremus, as follows: 

Ton. VI. 

Sac. f de fe dc Sac. cum ministiis. 

Ec-ce li - gnum cru - cis, in quo sa - lus mun - di 

pe - pen - dit. Chor. B. Ve - ni - te ad-o - re - mus. 

This Antiphon is sung three times, the voice being 
raised a tone higher at each repetition. During the ado- 
ration of the Cross, the Choir sings the reproaches 
(Improperia) Popule metis , and then the Hymn Crux 
fidelis. During the Procession of the Blessed Sacrament 
from the altar of reposition, the Hymn Vexilla Regis 
prodeunt is sung. 1 

After the Orate fratres the Celebrant sings: Ore- 
mus, prceceptis scdutaribus .... in tono feriali (p. 153). 
He says Amen in a low voice, and then sings in ferial 
tone without Oremus (page 120) Libera nos, the Choir 
answering Amen. 

III. On Easter Saturday, the Chanters, when the 
Litany is ended, intone Kyrie eleison; (see Grad. Bom. 


p. 6*. Ordinarium Missce. p. 3*). The Gloria is solemn. 1 ) 
The Prayer in tono festive (p. 120). After the Epistle 
the Celebrant sings: 

Al-le - - - - lu-ja. 

This he sings three times, commencing a tone higher 
each time, and the Choir repeats it after him, each time 
in the same tone. 

After the 3 d repetition of the Alleluia, the Choir 
continues with Confitemini and the Tract Laudate Bo- 
minum. After the Communion of the Priest, Vespers, 
which on this day are united to the Mass , are com- 
menced. The Choir intones the Antiphon Alleluia and 
the Psalm Laudate Bominum. then repeats the Antiphon. 
There is no Little Chapter, Hymn, or Yersicle. but the 
Celebrant then intones the Antiphon of the Magnificat. 
as follows: 

' ■ *h ^ ^ < m ' — ■ — ^ 

Te-spe-re au-tem Sab - ba-ti 

The Choir begins at qum lucescit . . . and sings the 
Magnificat 8 th Tone. 1 st ending. As soon as the Anti- 
phon is repeated, the Celebrant sings Bominus vobiscum, 
Oremus dc. in tono festivo (p. 120), Bominus vobiscum, 
and then the Deacon Ite missa est, Alleluia, Alleluia 
(p. 157. N° 1). 

l ) The Organ is played and the bells are rung. 


CHAPTER 36th. 

1. Hymni coram Ss. Sacramento ex Rit. Rom. 

Ton. I. 

a) Pange lingua glo-ri - 6 - si. 
T on. I. 

-n — W— 1 1 1 u 

b) Sa-cris so - le-mni-is jun-cta sint gaudi-a. 

__ Ton. VIII. 

c) Yerbum su-pernum prodi-ens. 

d) Ae-ter - ne Rex al - tis-si-me. 

Ton. IV. 

e) Sa-lu - tis hu-ma-nae sa-tor. 

2. The Devotion known as the '" F or ty Hours 
Adoration" 1 ) extends over three days. On the First 
Day , there is the Mass of Exposition. After Mass 
a Procession is formed, during which the Hymn Pange 
lingua (intoned as above) is sung alternately by the 
Choir, and by those taking part in the Procession. When 
the Procession is over and the Blessed Sacrament placed 
on the throne prepared for it, the Litany of the Saints, 
as on St. Mark's day, page 206, is chanted, with the 
Prayers &c. ; concluding with Exaucliat nos Sc. and 
> Fidelium animce Sc. On the Second day there is a 

') For the full ceremonial of the "Forty Hours Adoration" see 
"Manuale Sac. Ceremoniarum &c"< by the V. Rev. Mgr. Forde. S. T. D. 
Ecc. Met. Dublin. Canonic. Dublini apud Jac. Duffy. 7. Wellington 

- — ') 

solemn Votive Mass pro Pace at a side altar, but with- 
out Gloria or Credo ; and on the third day the Solemn 
Mass of Reposition is celebrated at the principal altar 
comm SSmo. On the third day the Litanies are sung 
before the Procession, but only up to the verse Domine 
exaudi &c. inclusive; then the Procession takes place, 
and after the Procession, (the concluding verses of the 
Hymn u Tantum ergo" and "Genitori" being sung at 
the Altar, and the chanters at the end of the Hymn 
adding u Panem de ccelo" &c.j the Celebrant sings the 
Prayers as on the day of Exposition, all concluding with 
Benediction of the Most Holy Sacrament. 

3. Invocatio S. Spiritus. 
g e f d f agfg 

Antiph. Ve-ni sancte Spf - ri-tus. Hymn. Ve-rti Cre-a-tor 

Spi-ri-ttis. if. Eim'tte Spfritum tuum, et creabun-tur 
Et renovabis faciem ter-rae. 
Oratio: Deus, qui corda, as at page 120. 

4. Benedictio Pontificalis. 

The Pontifical Blessing is given by a Bishop in two 
forms : one, when a sermon is preached within the Mass 
and an Indulgence published. In this case the Preacher 
having concluded his sermon, remains in the pulpit, and 
the Deacon going to the foot of the Bishop's throne 
sings the Confiteor as at page 155; genuflecting at the 
words Tibi Pater and Te Pater. 

After the Confiteor, the Preacher publishes the In- 
dulgence in the form prescribed in the Ceremoniale Episc. 
cap. XX V. Then the Bishop sings in tono simpl. fer. 
the words : Precious et meritis Beata Maries semper Vir- 



girds, Beati Micliaelis Arcliangeli, Beati Joannis Baptist ce, 
Sanctorum Apostolorum Petri et Pauli, et omnium San- 
ctorum, misereatur vestri Omnipotens Deus, et dimissis 
peccatis vestris, perducat vos ad vitam ceternam. 

To which the Choir answers on one note z|E§r±^ 


Then the Bishop continues, "Indulgentiam, absolution 
nem, et remissionem peccatorum vestrorum, tribuat vobis 
omnipotens, et misericors Domimis.'' 

Choir answers : i|~zizz3^^ 

v Then assuming the mitre, the Bishop blesses the 
people more consueto, saying: — "Et henedictio Dei 
cymnipotentis Pa f tris, et Fi f In, et Spiritus f Sancti 
descendat super vos, et maneat semper." 

Choir answers : j znBzrjL z^ 

The second form is when presiding at Solemn Mass 
the Bishop gives the Blessing at the end of Mass, thus: 

t. Sit no-men Domini be-ne - di-ctum. 
I£. Ex hoc nunc us-que in sae - cu - lum. 

— — — * j — : 

ft. Adjutorium nostrum in nomine Do -mini. 
^. Qui fecit coelum et ter - ram. 

Benedicat vos o-mni-po-tens De-us, Pa -ter, et 

Fi-li-us, et Spi'-ri-tus san-ctus. A-men. 


5. In Exequiis. 

As the new Exequiale Bomanum gives in full all 
the chants and Intonations to be used in the Office and 
Mass for the Dead, we give here only those words that 
may have to be intoned by the officiating Priest. 

Parochus. Cantores. 

Ant. Si i - ni-qui-ti-tes. Ps. 129. De profundis clamavi 

ad te D6-mi-ne: Domine, exaudi vocem me-am. VII/i. 
Si i - ni-qui-ta-tes ob-ser-va-ve-ris D6-mi-ne, D6-mi-ne, 

quis su-sti-ne-bit? 
Parochus. Cantores. 

Ant. Ex - sul-tabunt D6mi-no. Ps. 50. Mi- se- re- re me-i, De-us, 

secundum magnam miseric6r-di-am tu-am. I/,. 

The Chanters intone the Resp. Subvenite, the Clergy 
(Choir) answer. The Prayers which conclude with Per 
Christum Dominum nostrum, or Qui vivis et regnas in 
scecula sceculorum, should be sung in Tono feriali p. T21 7 
the others in simpl.fer. p. 120. After the Libera me, 
Domine, the Priest sings : zjj-H^lL— Ej:rg— iff: — ~~ == and 

Pa-tor noster secreto, 


after the Incensation and Aspersion : V. Et ne nos indu- 

c a c a 

cas in tentatio-nem. B. Sed libera nos a ma-lo. V. A 

c a • c a 

porta in-feri. B. Erue, JDomine, animam ejus. V. Be- 

c a c c 

quiescat in pace. B. Amen. V. JDomine, exaudi oratio- 

c a c a 

nem meant. B. Et clamor mens ad te veniat. V. Do- 
minus vobiscum &c. 

After the Blessing of the grave the Priest intones: 

. t Cantores. 

HE— q ~ " — "- die— =N^q=q - — q: 

Ant. E-go sum. Cant. Bene-dictus D6-mi-nus De-us I-sra-el; * 

quia visitavit , et fecit redemptionem ple-bis su-ae. II. 
In exequiis parvulorum, lie sings : 


j£=tJL=l*zl*— q - f -*- dr=izzrz=rz3E ; — bz: j 

Ant. Sit nomen D6mi-ni. Ps. 112. Laudate , pueri, Dominum, 

lau-da-te nomen D6-mi-ni. II. 


CHAPTER 37th. 


I. For centuries past the Organ has become so 
domesticated in the Church, that it is now regarded as 
almost indispensable. It is true indeed that Church de- 
crees bearing on music, do little more than tolerate 
this instrument, 1 ) and at certain seasons and occasions 
formally prohibit it; the Chant being the only music 
prescribed in the Liturgy. Nevertheless the organ is re- 
cognised and its use sanctioned in sustaining the Chant ; 
and it must be admitted that the majesty and solemn 
grandeur of its tones justify its employment in religious 
worship. Even those who hold that Plain-Chant should 
never be accompanied, must nevertheless be desirous that 
the Preludes, Interludes and Postludes permitted 
on the Organ, should be of a grave, devotional character, 
and not out of keeping with the Chant itself; u non 
debet deformare cantum planum." How few Organists 
seem to comprehend this principle! How few again are 
thoroughly instructed in the nature, construction, or im- 
portance of the instrument! Many plead the wretched 
condition or insufficient size of their instrument as an 
excuse for a very indifferent performance. No doubt 

') "Hoc solo instrumento utitur Ecclesia in diversis cantibus, et in 
prosis, in sequentiis , et in hymnis, propter abusum histrionum ejectis 
aliis communiter instrumentis'* Aegid. Lamorensis apud Gerbert. Scrip. 
Tom. II. p. 388. The Ccerem. Episc. decrees u nec alia instrumenta 
musicalia, prater ipsum organum addantur." Lib L cap. 28. N° 11. It 
must be remembered that the organ has never been admitted into the 
Papal Chapel. 


many organs are sadly neglected, and allowed to falL 
into disrepair; but it is a mistake to imagine that good 
Organ-playing can only be obtained on an instrument 
of imposing dimensions. The really clever Organist will 
be speedily discovered on a small chancel-organ of four 
stops ; whilst Organs of eight and twelve stops allow of 
numerous and effective combinations, if the Organist only 
takes the trouble to study carefully the nature and con- 
struction of his instrument. It is also necessary for those 
who have to manage Organs, to be able to remedy the 
more trivial accidents which will occur from time to time 
in the most carefully constructed instruments, and to 
suggest to the Organ Builder such alterations or im- 
provements as may tend to balance the tone more evenly, 
and enhance the value of the instrument as a work of 
art. Every organ , no matter how small , should have 
the so-called long pedal, i. e. a full octave of Pedal 
pipes from c to c (or to g if the Organ be what is 
called a G Organ). Where this is wanting, it can be 
added on without much expense. The mixture stops should 
not be too shrill, 1 ) but yet powerful and sonorous. A 
4-foot stop can be used without coupling it to an 8-foot, 
if the piece be transposed an Octave lower. The larger 
the Organ is , and the more numerous the stops , the 
more varied are its tone-resources and possible combi- 
nations, and the more imperative does the duty of the 
Organist become, to study well the mechanism and the 
arrangement, the Tone-power and general effectiveness 
of the instrument entrusted to him. 

Several valuable works have been compiled on the 
Organ, its Construction &c; which to the diligent stu- 
dent will prove most useful. Most of them indeed are in 

*) In old Organs we often meet with exceedingly shrill Mixtures 
and Fifths, which if remodelled would furnish good material for more 

solid "small 1 ' work. 


German, such as: Becker, J ) Heinrieh, 2 ) Jacobs, 9 ) Mchter, 4 ) 
Seidell) Schlimbach. 6 ) But Topfer's exposition in his 
"Lehrbucli der Orgelkimst" (4 vols. Weimar, Yogt) ; as 
well as in the smaller work : Die Or gel dx. (Erfurt, 
Korner) is considered of the greatest usefulness and im- 
portance. For English readers "The Organ, its History 
and Construction" by Edward J. Hopkins, Organist of 
the Temple Church, London, will be found invaluable. 
(Cocks d Co. London.) 

II. This instrument is so complicated in construe- N 
tion , and presents so many difficulties in the just em- 
ployment of its varied resources, that constant, earnest 
persevering study is of paramount necessity. The skilful 
organist should be able not only to execute faultlessly 
whatever music may be placed before him, but moreover 
to improvise, or create music, guided by the well- 
established principles of a good school and the rules of 
composition , and not exclusively by his own peculiar 
fancy or musical taste. But to do this well, he must be 
a thorough master of the theory of music, he must be 
gifted with fair natural talent, and have acquired good 
executive ability by patient and well-ordered practice. 
Anyone acquainted with the biographies of great Musi- 
cians, c&nnot but remember, with what care and fore- 
thought such masters of the instrument as Sebastian 
Bath, Handel, Albreclitsberger and others, prepared them- 

k ) Rathschlage fur Organisten .... Leipzig, Schubert. 

) Orgellehre, Structur und Erhaltung. Glogau, Flemming. 

3 1 Prakt. Anleitung zur Erlangung der Kenntniss der Orgelregister 
&c,, nebst einer Anleitung zum Stimmen der Zungenwerke. Muldheim, 
Bagel. Amongst the most recent works of this nature, we may cite: 
Sattler, die Orgel nach den neuesten Grundsatzen der Orgelbaukunst. 
Langensalza , Gressler. Schmals, fiinf Recensionen iiber verschiedene 
neuere Orgeln. Hamburg, Griming. Schubert, die Orgel, ihr Bau 
ihre Geschichte und Behandlung. Leipzig, Merseburger. 

A ) Katechismus. der Orgel. Leipzig, Weber. 

b ) Die Orgel und ihr Bau. Breslau, Leuckart. Verv good ! 

6 ) Ueber Structur &c der Orgel. Leipzig, Breitkopf & Harteh 
Good but dear. 


selves when about to perform on it ; and what minute 
attention they bestowed even on the most insignificant 
of their compositions. With such memories to haunt him, 
no organist should be tempted to regard the momentary 
fancies of an oftentimes untutored taste, as subjects on 
which to expend the multiplied and varied resources of 
the King of instruments. 

Chr. Fr. Schubart 1 ) remarks with truth "that as the 
"Organ is the first of instruments, so is the Organist 
"the first of musicians. The management of the Organ 
"is exceptionally difficult, and whosoever undertakes to 
"study it, should possess good intellectual and physical 
"abilities. Amongst these I would reckon Genius and 
"Application. One that has not a natural talent for 
"the instrument can never become a clever organist; and 
"one who relies solely on his talent, and takes no pains 
"to educate it, or neglects to study the peculiarities of the 
"instrument, must always remain a naturalist." Every 
Catholic organist should understand Harmony, Thorough- 
Bass, Counterpoint, Fugue (or at least Imitation) so as 
to be able to guide himself in modulations, suitable 
transpositions, and pedal work; for all this is indis- 
pensable in the accompaniment of Plain-Chant. 

By playing from memory , at first short and easy 
pieces, then more difficult compositions for the Organ, 
his talent for improvisation will be developed, his imag- 
ination enlivened, his memory well exercised, his taste 
improved, and a correct musical comprehension of uni- 
formity and style gradually but securely acquired. From 
the innumerable works compiled on the Theory and 
Practice of Organ-playing, we select the following as the 
best known and most useful. Albrechtsberger, 2 ) Cheru- 

') Ideen zu einer Aesthetik der Tonkunst. Wien 1806. p. 280. 
Collected writings on Thorough-Bass, Harmony and Composition 
for self-instruction. Novello Eiver & Co. 1855. 


bini, 1 ) Dehn, 2 ) Herzog, 3 ) Hohmann, 4 ) Marx, 5 ) Oberhoffer. 6 ) 
Bichter, 7 ) Patter. 8 ) Schutze, 9 ) 1 Dr. Crotch, Organ fugues, 
C. H. Rinck's Organ School edited by Best, and Henry 
Smart's works. Many of those works are exclusively for 
practical Organ-playing, but are of little use to Catholic 
Organists except so far as they furnish manual and pedal 
exercises. Amongst works suitable for Catholic purposes 
we may enumerate Albrechtsberger, 10 ) Bach, 11 ) Becker, 
C. F. 12 ) Brosig, 13 ) Oberhoffer, Hesse, 14 ) Kothe 15 ) and 
Ett. 16 ) 

') Theorie des Contrapunctes und der Fuge. Leipzig, Kistner, 
*) Tlieor.-prakt. Harmonielehre. Berlin, Schlesinger. 

3 ) Orgelschule. Erlangen, Deichert. 

4 ) Lehrb. d. mus. Komposition, Harmonie und Generalbasslehre. 
Nurnberg, Schmid. 

5 ) Compositionslehre. Leipzig, Breitkopf & Hartel. 

6 ) Die Scbule des katb. Organisten. 2 Tbeile. Trier, Lintz. We 
understand, tins very useful work is being translated into Englisb by 
tbe authors son, at present Organist in the Catholic Church, York. 
To this class of useful works for Catholic Organists belong "die Be- 
handlung o'er OrgeL 5 bv B. Mettenleiter. Regensburg. Pustet: and the 
"prakt. Orgelschule : ' by B. Braun. Gmiind, Schmid. 

7 J Lehrbuch der Fuse, des Contrapunkts, der Harmonie. Leipzig, 
Breitkopf & Hartel. 

8 ) Die Kunst des Orgelspiels. 3 parts, a very useful book, also 
his Handbook for harmony. 

9 ) Prakt. Orgelschule. Leipzig, Arnold. 

10 ) Six Fugues for the Organ. Vienna, Haslinger. 

".) The "well-tempered Clavier," and especially his compositions 
edited by Chrysander. Leipzig, Peters. Above and beyond all, Sebastian 
Bach remains^ the grand model for all organ players ; and his works 
are an inexhaustible mine of Taste, Thought and' manner of grasping 
the subject. 

12 ) The "Organ archives" edited together with Ritters work is de- 
serving of special mention. 48 pieces from different epochs. Leipzig,Friese. 

,3 ) A Catholic Organist of great distinction. 

14 J His works to be had mostly from Leukart in Breslau. 

,5 ) Handbuch fur Organisten. "Breslau, Leuckart. A very useful, 
practical work, to be highly recommended. 

l8 ) Cadenzen, Yersetten. Praludien und Fugen fiir Orgel, 2 lld im- 
proved edition. A most useful, and one might add necessary work for 
all Catholic organists. 


CHAPTER 38th. 


"As Plain-Chant is pure melody; and was invented 
"and composed without harmonic accompaniment, without 
"time and with free recitation of the text; so any har- 
"monic accompaniment to it is an evil." Thus writes 
Dr. Franz Witt. 1 ) He would indeed except the simple 
antiphonal chants, such as the Responses and Psalm- 
Tones, which do not belong to the scientific chant proper, 
and are for the most part only a recitation of the text 
upon one note, with certain cadences and melodic pas- 
sages, according to fixed rules at the commas, full-stops, 
&c. But for the scientific chant itself, he regards "any 
"harmonic accompaniment, even if it be by the first artist 
"in the world, as the greatest misfortune; in fact its 
"death." "Twenty years practical experience" he adds, 
"has convinced me, that singers who always sing Plain- 
" Chant accompanied are quite incapable of singing it with 
"proper feeling .... An Organ accompaniment, though 
"liked by almost everybody, is and must be monotonous ; 
"a proper change of the registers, the perpetual accen- 
tuation and non-accentuation, the crescendo and climi- 
"nuenclo, with which the text should be declaimed, cannot 
" by any possibility be managed on an organ. — The 
"countless embellishments (the neumce on short syllables, 
"20 or more notes, in old books, 160 to 200 notes on 
"one short syllable) which resemble the arabesques round 
"the initial letters in ancient illuminated Missals, and 
"which must be treated with the same delicacy, become 
"quite unmeaning with any accompaniment; moreover 
"everything else becomes, to say the least of it, coarse, 

,7 ) See Preface to "Organum comitans ad Ordinarium Missce" trans- 
lated by H. S. Butterfield, Author of "The Reform of Church-Music 
in Germany &c." (Tablet.) i 


"colourless and spiritless, and a want of spirit and of ex- 
pressiveness, or singing every thing alike, as people say, 
"kills any music, any melodic outpouring of the soul." *) 

Nevertheless as the Organ proves so useful, and 
oftentimes indispensable in sustaining the voices, espec- 
ially in weak or insufficiently-trained choirs, this "evil" 
must be tolerated, provided however that the accompa- 
niment be regulated by the. principles and peculiarities 
of the Chant itself, and not by the laws of modern 
harmonisation. The first thing to be borne in mind is, 
that the Gregorian modes are totally different from our 
modern major and minor modes , and any attempt to 
harmonize them according to the rules of modern har- 
mony, will infallibly destroy the Chant. In the modern 
modes, for instance, certain notes have a peculiar affinity 
or attraction towards others ; such as the dominant arid 
sub-dominant and the leading-note of the key, and mo- 
dern music is harmonized upon a consideration of such 
affinities or attractions ; but in Church modes these af- 
finities have no existence ; so that to clothe them with 
harmonies creating anticipations which are inconsistent 
with the progress of the melody, must necessarily destroy 
their distinctive character. The peculiar tonality of the 
Gregorian Modes, as we have elsewhere observed, (See 
Chap. 9) arises from the varied disposition of the inter- 
vals of the scale. The 1 st and 2 nd modes, for instance, 
are treated by some harmonists , as if they were the 
modern scale of D minor; from which however they 
differ in two important particulars. In the first place, 
the Gregorian mode, being purely diatonic, has the si 
not b; and in the second place, it has the do always 

') The esteemed author of Loss and Gain makes one of his char- 
acters say, with reference to harmonized Gregorian music, that "it is 
a mixture of two things, each good in itself, and incongruous together." 
•'It's a mixture of the first and second courses at table." — "It's like 
the architecture of the facade at Milan, half Gothic, half Grecian. 


never # ; so that , if the Organist harmonises either of 
these modes as in the scale of I) minor, he will con- 
stantly introduce chords in the accompaniment which will 
prepare the ear of the singer for notes the very opposite 
of those which he is required to sing. On the same prin- 
ciple such harmonists would treat the 3 d and 4 th modes, 
as in the key of E major; the 5 th and 6 th modes, as 
in F major ; and the 7 th and 8 th as G major, all which 
treatments would he wrong. The fundamental rule for 
accompanying Gregorian Chant, is, that the "Harmony 
of the Church Modes, should on no account alter 

- or interfere with the melody; the melody must in 
all cases and under all circumstances predominate, and 
the accompaniment he, as far as the laws of harmdny per- 
mit, strictly diatonic. The construction of cadences in 
the accompaniment of Plain-Chant is subject to the 
same rule." "Nothing is more simple," writes M. Danjou 
(Revue de Musiqiie for Bee. 1847 and Jan. 1848) "or 
more easy than the accompaniment of the Church-Song, 
if the rules of counterpoint laid down by the Masters of the 
middle ages are followed ; but on the contrary nothing 
more complicated, more difficult or more uncertain, than 
the attempt of assimilating modern harmony with the 

•ancient tonality." The modern modes close with the chord 
of- the dominant leading into the chord of the tonic ; not 
so the old modes. Modern modes have a leading or sen- 
sible note; in the old modes you would search for it in 
vain. In modern pieces of music the close of each period 
and of the entire piece must be made with the chord of 
the Tonic; in Gregorian Modes this is not necessary. 1 ) 

'J J. G. Mettetileiter in his organ accompaniment to the Enchi- 
ridion Chorale was guided by the same principles. u The organ accom- 
paniment employs only those hannonic progressions which are by na- 
ture purely diatonic, and which are constructed on and bound up 
with the theoretical rules, and elaborated praxis of the great masters 
of counterpoint of the 15 th and 16 th and first half of the 17 th centuries. 


As a general rule it may be stated that "all the 
notes of each diatonic scale may be employed in 
t>he construction of chords, but the closing chord 
should be constructed on the final of the mode." 

Observation. The great need of having some sys- 
tematic method of harmony for Plain-Chant, has given rise 
to various schemes, especially of late years. In Rome the 
Chant is never accompanied, et hoc laudo; in France the 
cantus firmus is usually given to the Pedal in the organ, 
or to a deep bass wind instrument; and the harmonies con- 
structed thereon, oftentimes meaningless and unconnected, 
make the Chant itself heavy and wearisome. F. A. Gevaert 
and the Abbe van Damme, two Belgian virtuosi, lay down 
as a "fundamental law, that the accompaniment should be 
strictly diatonic, and that no note should appear in the 
accompaniment that does not exist in the melody. This 
system, in melodies of a small range, say five notes, would 
reduce the possible chords to a very limited number. The 
late Father Schneider of Ebingen would harmonise Plain- 
Chant without any diesis or flat (S or t>) appearing even 
in the cadences. J. G. Mettenleiter gave to each note of 
the melody a distinct chord, mostly however according to 
the laws of two-part counterpoint (nota contra notam) ; — 
a system which demands great executive ability on the 
part of the organist, so as to keep on with the melody in 
this endless succession of chords, and produces decided 
monotony, for most of the chords and chord-relations of 
the same kind will be constantly recurring. Dr. Witt fi- 
nally in his organ accompaniment to the "Oidinarium Missce" 
adopts the diatonic system, but wifh perfect harmonic 
closes, not overlooking however the rhythmical movement 
of the Chant; and to this end he allows connected notes, 
and neumas or phrases that must be sung rapidly and 
together, to be accompanied by held-down chords, a change 
being made to a new chord when some important note in 
the passage demands it. "The advantages of this theory," 

Their progression is as a rule confined to the diatonic triad and 
its first inversion: but by the application of ties- on certain notes of 
the chord, it prepares the most surprising dissonances, resolves them 
in the most pleasing manner and allows them to pass into perfect and 
effective consonances." 


he says in the Preface, "are fourfold; a) the accompani- 
ment is easier to play because many notes have not a 
"distinct chord ; b) it suits the simplicity of the Chant bet- 
ter, and therefore is less monotonous; c) in the melodies 
"themselves all the notes are not of equal importance 
"(accented); many are 'passing notes,' and this is decisive 
"lor my theory; and lastly, it allows the' melody to be 
"more prominent, for a melody over a held-down chord 
"stands forth much more boldly, and is therefore more 
"effective." A choice between these different systems, — 
all diatonic however, — is of course a matter of taste: 
The experienced author of the "Magister Ch oralis," 
after testing all of them, selected Witt's system as the 
best, and on the same principles prepared the organ ac- 
companiments to the new official edition of the "Graduate 
Romanum" now published by Pustet. A perusal of the 
Preface to Witt's "Organum comitans" will repay the in- 
terested inquirer. We would again beg leave to caution 
Organists who may use these published accompaniments, 
against a mistake not unfrequently made, that of regard- 
ing the flats or sharps in the beginning of the stave, as 
the signature of our modern keys. Their presence only 
indicate that the pitch has been transposed, and they are 
placed there to preserve the original position of the semi- 
tones of the mode, and not to indicate a key. 

The accompaniment should be generally speaking, a 
four-part one, in close or extended harmony. In large 
choirs where there is a considerable number of singers, and 
the church itself of considerable size, the accompaniment 
should if possible, be all through in extended harmony. 
At the right time and place it niay become five, six and 
eight-part, and the good Organist will exercise his judg- 
ment in employing the resources of his instrument, and 
always with the view of rendering the performance of the 
Chant effective. It is self-evident on the other hand that an 
immoderate number of notes and doubled-chords produces 
a bad effect, and that excursions up and down the man- 
uals, variations, appoggiaturas and other such modulations, 
should never be permitted to obscure or interrupt the chant. 


The Preludes should have a reference to the Chant 
coming on, and serve as an introduction to it; one or 
more ideas from the Introit for instance, might form 'the 
subject of the Prelude, which should close on the final 
of the mode in which the Chant begins. This requirement 
is in no way preposterous, as the Preludes in Catholic 
Church-service, can never be so long as to create any 
embarrassment to a skilled organist. The Organist must 
take Masters for his models, study their compositions, 
be not ashamed to play from the copy, and try in writ- 
ing, to work out short organ passages in the old Gre- 
gorian modes. l ) The least that may be expected from 
an Organist who has to accompany Plain-Chant, is that 
at all events, in the last 10 to 12 bars of his Pre- 
lude he should employ a strict Church style, and 
so introduce his singers to the holy function in 
which they are to take an active part. 

The Interludes, where the\ are introduced with 
judgment and taste, should for a still stronger reason 
be invested with the character of the Church Tones. 
Operatic Overtures , military Marches , Fantasias and 
Ariettas, favourite pieces with so many Organists, are 
scarcely the character of interludes that would fit well 
after the Gradual or Offertory in an Old Gregorian Tone. 

The Postiudes should put the seal on the sublimity 
and dignity of the Chant that preceded, and not draw 
off the singers or hearers to another train of thought. 

4 ) Franz Commer published (Trautwein in Berlin) a collection of 
Organ-pieces from the 16 th and 17 th centuries. Father Schmidt, Ka- 
pellmeister in Munster, is the compiler of another collection; also 
Riegt 1 "Praxis Organoedi;" and Kothe : "Orgelstiicke in den alten Kirchen- 
tonarten (Regemburg , Pustet). In Herzog's das kirchliche Orgehpiel" 
you will find in the Appendix very pretty short and long pieces and 
modulations in the old Church Modes. A most practical method for 
acquiring a facility of playing in the old modes,'would be to study 
the scores of the "Musica Divina" especially the 3 d vol., or other si- 
milar works of the old masters, and write out for one's sell, short 
and striking passages, transpose them if necessary, and then play them. 


"When several pieces in different modes follow one an- 
other; e. g. the Antiphons at Vespers &c, care should 
be taken to modulate naturally into the new mode, so 
as to mark its distinctive character. It will be there- 
fore necessary for the Organist by free transposition 
to be able to give the Chants in different pitches ac- 
cording as circumstances may require. For this purpose 
exercises in reading the different clefs and the system 
of transpositions (as in Chapters 3 d and 14 th ) become 
absolutely necessary, until the player is no longer em- 
barrassed by them. Above all it can never be too often 
stated, that conscientious practice, steady self-criticism, 
zealous working out of the. old models, coupled with un- 
interrupted theoretical study, must form the distinctive 
qualifications of a good Catholic Organist. 1 ) 

We may close this chapter with a short quotation 
from the musical historian Ambros. 2 ) "The innate vital 
"power of these chants is so great, that even without 
"any harmonization, they can be made available for 
"the most intense expression, and nothing is required out- 
"side themselves to mark their great importance: whilst 
"on the other hand, for the richest and mast artistic 
"harmonic treatment, they furnish inexhaustible matter, 
"and their accumulation through the course of centuries 
"form a treasure, of which art has now the benefit. Music 
"has waxed strong in the mighty vitality of Gregorian 
"Chant; she has been formed out of its melodies, from 
"the first rude attempts of the Organum, of Diaphony, 
"and Faux Bourdons, down to her highest perfection 
"in the Palestrina style." 

In these old compositions there is a rich collection of pieces, in which 
the parts do not cross each other too often , and which thereby be- 
come most useful for the organ. 

') Anyone who does not feel thoroughly competent to accompany 
Plain Chant, should not attempt it. He would do more harm than good. 

2 ) Geschiclite der Musik. Vol. 2. p. 67. 




CHAPTER % 39th. 


The zeal and industry with which the Clergy in the 
earlier ages cultivated the Chant, is a matter of history. *) 
From the same source we may learn, how the Church, 
not only adopted the words of Ecclesiasticus, cap. 44. 5. 
("Laudemus viros gloriosos et parentes nostros in genera- 
Hone sua . . . in peritia sua requirentes moclos musicos, et 
narrantes carmina scripturarum") as suitably describing 
the characteristic virtues of many amongst her Saints; 
{In Comm. Conf. Pont.) but also embellished her entire 
Ritual, and brightened it up with the songs of holy and 
enlightened men; and Bishops, Priests and Clerics vied 
with each other in rendering in a worthy manner the 
splendid melodies of St. Gregory; and Councils encour- 
aged the conscientious study of the same. 2 ) 

') Laicus in ecclesiis non debet recitare , nec Alleluia dicere, sed 
psalmos tantum sine Alleluia. Theod. of Canterbury. See Gerbert. T. I. 
p. 243. 

2 ) 8* h Council of Toledo, Can. 6. Council of Trent, Sess.23. can. 18, 
de reformatione. Council of Rome (1725) and numerous National and 
Provincial Synods and Pastoral Addresses. The National Synod of 
Thurles in the Chap, de Eucharistia, can. 38, says : "Nidlus cantus nisi 
gravis, et ecclesiasticus, in Ecclesiis adhibeatur. Hectores Seminariorum 

1 16 


"If then," writes Jannsen, "we address ourselves to 
the Clergy first, we do so under the firm persuasion 
that the study of Plain- Chant and its good execution 
depend principally upon them .... But it is. alas ! too 
true, that many amongst them, through carelessness or 
want of knowledge in this matter, furnish the best pos- 
sible reasons for its decay and depreciation. We are 
forced to say with Cardinal Bona "Ut fatear quod res 
est, pudet me plerosque ecclesiasticos vivos totius vitce 
cursu in cantu versari, ipsum vero cantum, quod turpe 
est, ignorare." (De cantu eccl. §. III. N° I.) 1 ) Stein, 
who in his excellent little book 2 ) extends the duties of 
the Priest as Master in his Church, also to the depart- 
ment of Church Music, mentions, that formerly musical 
culture was especially to be met with amongst the Clergy, 
and that the greater and better portion were only turned 
away from it when the degenerate style of Church-Music 
was first introduced, but with unpardonable carelessness 
they remained inactive. "But for this indifference the 
ignorance we have now to deplore would never have be- 
come so great or so universal." 3 ) 

curent , prcepositis etiam prcemiis, ut alumni in Cantu gravi et eccle- 
siastico bene instituantur :" See Preface for the Synod of Maynooth. 
The Council of Laodicea (in the 4 th century) decrees: "Non oportet 
nisi canonicos cantores qui suggestum aseendunt , et ex diphtera seu 
rnembrana canunt, alium quemlibet in Ecclesia psallere" 

1 ) Methode (les vrais principes) du Chant Gregorien. H. Dessain, 

2 ) Die katholische Kirchenmusik nach Hirer Bestimmung und Hirer 
dermaligen Bes chaff enheit. Koln, Bachem. 

3 ) May we venture to hope, that by reason of the greater inter- 
est awakened amongst the Clergy, and their deep penetration, the 
words of Fr. Bollens in his deutsche Choralgesang in der Tcatholischen 
Kirche p. 180 may have lost their force. "Instruction in Gregorian 
Chant is mostly entrusted to men, who are utterly ignorant of its 
principles, and who fail to command the attention of their pupils, 
whereby the Singing Lesson becomes an hour's recreation and amuse- 
ment. The Teacher is satisfied if his pupils can sing the collects and 
the Preface tolerably, or intone the "Gloria" or "IteMissa est" a feat 
however which he can get few to accomplish." "Sunt etiam plerique 


He therefore counsels scientific instruction in singing, 
at as early an age as possible : and if at all feasible, 
in the Pianoforte and Organ, for those who aspire to the 
Sacred Ministry. "If in early life the education of the 
future Priest does not embrace the science of music and 
its practical application, later on. when he enters the 
Ecclesiastical Seminary, and is engrossed by other and 
more important studies . this instruction can no longer 
be efficiently imparted. Here it will be too late to be- 
gin the musical education of a young man; too late even 
to direct him in the proper rendering of the simple 
liturgical Chants of the Altar." Proksch: 1 ) ^The Priest 
himself in his Church, must be a Singer, even if he 
only have to sing at the Altar: for he has the super- 
vision of the Church Music, of the popular chants, and 
of the Organ-playing . . . Antony: "If however many 
persons seek to excuse themselves on the ground, that 
in, the matter of musical capabilities nature has treated 
them after the manner of a step-mother, and conse- 
quently they do not know their errors in singing, nor 
how to correct them; they are bound nevertheless to 
avail themselves of external aid. in order to work out, 
what they, left to themselves, are not in a position to 
do; for it is written: (James iv. 17) Scienti ig'rtur honum 
facere, et non faeienti, peccatum est illi." Amberger: 3 ) 

Clerici velMonachi. qui artem Musicae jucundissimse neque sciunt, ne- 
que scire volunt, et, quod gravius est, scientes refutant et abhorrent, 
et quod si.aliquis musicus eos de cantu, quern vel non rite vel incom- 
posite proferunt, compellat, impudenter irati obstrepunt, nec veritati 
adquiescere volunt, suumque errorem suo conamine defendunt." Guido 
oi Arezzo, see Gerbevt Scrvptores T. II. p. 51. One would think thesj? 
words were written in the ;9 th century instead of the 11 th so well do 
tin y describe the present condition of affairs. 

') Aphorismen iiber katholische Kirchenmusik. Prao:. Bellmann. 

l ) Archaofog. Uturg. Lehrbuch des gregorianischen Kirchengesanges. 
Munster, Coppenrath. ' 

3 ) Pastor altheologie, II. vol. From page 216 to 234 the writer enu- 
merates various motives to encourage the study of Liturgical Song. The 



"Whosoever enters the domain of Liturgy, is as muck 
bound to learn Gregorian Chant and to sing, ac- 
cording to the mind of the Church, as he is to be a 
faithful observer of the Rubrics." "Even though 
every one may not be able to produce or to appreciate 
that wonderful unison of Tone, and those most tender 
movements of the heart of the Church, yet it is the 
duty of every one, with holy joy, to set value on the 
songs of the Church, and not to put them aside with in- 
difference; to try and understand their truth, their beauty 
and their power, and not through neglect of necessary 
practice, or through clumsy rendering of them, deprive 
them of all feeling. Every one should try and feel 
more and more the beauty of Plain-Chant, in 
order that he may sing it with devotion." "Let no 
man say : — the people understand very little about it — : 
you sing in the name of the Church, to the honour of 
her eternal Spouse ; but you must also be persuaded that 
through this elevating chant, the hearts of the faithful 
are effectually reached." 

On the other hand the following remarks are wor- 
thy of the Cleric's attention: "The Singer should be 
a man of prayer:" St. Bernard: 1 ) Sunt quidam voce 
dissoluti, qui foods slice modidatione gloriantur, nec tan- 
turn gaudent de dono gratim, sed etiam alios spernunt. 
Tumentes elatione aliud cant ant , quam libri habeant, 
tanta est levitas vocis, forsitan et mentis. Gantant at 
place a id popuio magis quam Deo. Si_sic cantas, at ab 

pastoral letter of the Bishop of Ratisbon, on the question of Church- 
Music, must also be mentioned here. C. Sev. Meister writes in his 
costly work '"das Tcatholische deutsche Kirchenlied" : The Chant of the 
Church is an essential part of public worship; its history is 
a portion of Church history; the knowledge of it, in an histor- 
ical and liturgical point of view, is part of theological science. 1 ' 
See also Durandus , Rationale divinorum offtciorum, Lib. II. De can- 
tore, de psalmista $c. 

') See Bona, Div. Psalmodia. cap. XVII , de cantu Ecclesias. §. v. 


uliis laudem queer as, vocem tuam rendis , et facts earn 
non tuam, sed suam. Vivos decet virili voce cant are, et 
non more foemineo tinmdis vel falsis vocibus velut his- 
trionicam imitari lasciviam. The expression u castigatio 
vocis" when the Amict is given in the ordination of a 
Sub-deacon may also be understood in this sense. Instit. 
Patr.: Nec voluhilitate nimia confundenda quce dicimus, 
qua et distinctio perit et affectus . . . cm contrarium est 
vitium nimice tarditatis. — Jerome of Moravia : l ) Nun- 
quam cantus nimis basse incipiatur, quod est ululare, 
nec nimis alte, quod est clamare; sed mediate, quod est 
cantare. — Bona: Beceptum a majoribus can turn in- 
tegrum oportet, et illibatum custodire, ne si semel ab- 
errare coeperimus a semitis antiquis , quas ^osuerunt 
Patres nostri, paulatim inconsultis emtationibus religio- 
nis integritas destruatur. 

Denique damnati sunt Mi, qui parcentes vocibus 
suis rapinam faciunt in holocaustis , qui vitulos scilicet 
labiorum suorum Domino redder e negligentes, vel dolo- 
rem capitis vel stomachi debilitatem, vel exilitatem vocis 
pr&tendunt ad excusandas excusationes in peccatis : cum 
revera totum in eis sibi vindicent mentis evagatio, dis- 
tractio cordis, carnis inertia, et propria? salutis incuria. 
Non enim consider ant , quod, qui a communi labor e se 
subtrahunt, communi etiam retributione carebunt, et qui 
JEcclesiam servitute, proximum cedificatione, Angelos Ice- 
titia, sanctos gloria, Deum cultu defraudant , ipsi quo- 
qu'e Dei gratia, sanctorum suffragiis, Angelorum custo- 
dia , proximi adjutorio , Ecclesiee beneficiis se reddunt 
indignos. Eis enim, qui legitime canunt , et sapienter 
psallant (inquit Rupertus Abbas) remuneratio vel prce- 
mium erit carmen ceternum. 

') In Coussemacker, Script. 


CHAPTER 40th. 

The Choir-Master or Conductor is the very soul of 
the Choir, animating and governing it. On him devolves 
the duty of teaching his Choristers Gregorian Chant, and 
securing by every means within his reach, that its simple 
but heavenly melodies be rendered in a becoming and 
edifying manner. This pre-supposes a thorough knowl- 
edge , theoretical and practical, of the Ancient Modes 
and Melodies , for the soul must have a body ; but no 
knowledge howsoever extensive, if unaccompanied by a 
just esteem of the Chant itself, and of the honourable 
position it occupies in the Church's Liturgy, will ensure 
its being worthily rendered, for the body without the 
spirit is dead. Here however we encounter the first great 
obstacle to the proper teaching and rendering of Plain- 
Chant; for, most Catholic Choir-Masters, whilst thorough- 
ly- well grounded in the principles of modern music, and 
conversant with the manifold and marvellous adaptabi- 
lities of the major and minor mode ; — (which date only 
from the latter half of the 1 7 th century ;) — carry their 
researches no farther back, and when you speak to them 
of Gregorian Chant, they turn away from you with a 
contemptuous shrug of the shoulders, as if you broached 
a subject utterly out of joint with all correct notions of 
music or things musical. We therefore venture to enu- 
merate what may be regarded as the necessary qual- 
ifications of a Catholic Choir-Master. 

1) He should have a knowledge of the Latin tongue, 
as the Liturgical text is all written in that language. 1 ) 
Without, a fair knowledge of Latin , he cannot under- 

l ) We specially recommend u The Catholics Latin Instructor" by 
Rev. E. Caswall. London. Bums & Gates. 


stand the sentiments conveyed in the words, and there- 
fore cannot give the just expression to these words, or 
to the melody in which they are clothed ; for it should 
he ever remembered, that in Ecclesiastical Chant the 
"text is the master, the notes the slaves." If however 
any Conductor he not acquainted with Latin , a trans- 
lation will be of some assistance, although it may not 
give the precise meaning of every word. It is also de- 
sirable, as Ave have remarked in a previous chapter, that 
he should understand and know how to use the Eccle- 
siastical Calendar, or Direetorium (Ordo) ; in order that 
he may find the Chants prescribed for the day or sea- 
son, and regulate their performance in accordance with 
the requirements of the rubric. The conscientious Choir- 
Master would moreover be careful to teach his singers 
the meaning of the words they are called upon to sing, 
and explain the mutual relations of AVord and Tone. 

2) The Liturgy is so beautiful in itself, and conveys 
so clearly the mind of the Church in her various sol- 
emnities throughout the year, that no Catholic who ob- 
serves it closely .and strives to understand it , can fail 
to be influenced by that peculiar spirit which animates 
the Church herself, and gives force and meaning to the 
several functions of her public worship. Now the Catholic 
Choir-Master who seeks to discharge his duty faithfully, 
must allow this spirit to take possession of him ; he must 
as it were live with the Church, and enter into her feel- 
ings ; — weep with her in her sorrow and exult in her 
joy : — otherwise he can never realize for himself or 
those under him, the meaning of the occasion which she 
solemnizes, or of the words which, she employs. No 
matter how great his musical talents otherwise may be, 
the Choir-Master who cannot identify his way of thinking 
with that of the Church, as expressed in her Liturgy, 
and who fancies that he adequately discharges his duty 


by merely making music whilst a religious function is 
being gone through, is deficient in one of the most im- 
portant qualifications for his position. 

3) The particular occasion or Festival, 1 ) also serves 
to determine the style of Intonation, the rhythmic move- 
ment, and the more or less solemn delivery of the Chant. 
On High Festivals, even the Psalm-Tones are more elab- 
orate in their inflections, and approximate to the melodic 
Chants of the Graduale or Antiphonarium ; whereas 
on simple Feasts and Ferias, they are throughout, little 
more than a reciting monotone sung more rapidly and 
at a lower pitch. On these latter occasions the melodies 
themselves should not be sung so slowly or with all that 
solemnity which is expected on the great Festivals. In 
Requiem Masses, the voice should be subdued, yet clear, 
pitched in a quiet tone, but not comfortless. 

4) The Tone of each piece, its compass and pecu- 
liarities, should be carefully explained, in order that the 
special character of each of the modi may be clearly 
understood and conveyed; and the Singers should be 
trained to strike unwonted intervals with accuracy and 
without hesitation, and to master the melodic or rhyth- 
mical difficulties which may occur in a piece. 

5) A clear understanding should exist between the 
Organist and Choir-Mast er, as regards the pitch of each 
piece. As high and low voices unite to sing Plain-Chant, 
the pitch should be so regulated, i. e. transposed, as 
that the entire piece can be sung by all with equal power 
and without any extraordinary effort. The division of 
the choir into two sections , such as Chanters and full 

') The Institut. Patr. distinguishes three classes of Festivals. On 
great occasions one should sing with his whole heart, and soul, and 
voice; on Sundays and Feasts of Saints more quietly; on ordinary 
days, the manner of chanting should be so regulated, that all may 
sing carefully and devotionally , without straining of the voice, with 
feeling and without fault (cum affectu absque defectuj. 


Choir, or Boys and Men, or upper (Soprano and Tenor) 
voices and under (Alto and Bass) voices, so that the sev- 
eral periods of the melody may be sung alternately, and 
occasional emphatic passages be delivered by all united, 
varies the Chant and renders it easv and animated, whilst 
it obviates many difficulties which in the continuous 
chant of a piece by the full choir are unavoidable. 

6) The Choir-Master should be thoroughly acquainted 
with the power and capabilities of his Singers, and only 
allow those to sing, who are sufficiently instructed in the 
Principles and Practice of Plain-Chant, and are possessed 
of sound tuneful voices, and a good distinct pronuncia- 
tion. The flippant saying : "for Plain-Chant any voice is 
good enough,*' betrays not only gross ignorance and con- 
tempt of art, but also unpardonable irreverence towards 
the consecrated Chant of the Catholic Church. Young 
fresh voices when singing up the scale, and especially 
when the higher notes are touched are in danger of 
going out of tune; this should not be allowed, and it 
is the duty of the Master, quietly and without delay 
(by a stronger or quicker delivery of the voice) to bring 
them back to the normal tone. 

7) The quantity (i. e. length or brevity) of the 
syllables must be specially attended to, for the regular 
alternation of the rhetorical rhythm, and absolute free- 
dom in delivery , unfettered by any bar-measurement, 
form the grand features of Gregorian Chant. The long 
and short notes should never be subjected to any law 
of a mechanical metronome. We recommend Chapters 
3 d and 4 th of this Manual to the careful perusal of 
Choir-Masters. *) Steady and marked motions of the hand 

') Rev. F. X. Haberl in the "May. chorali*" states' it as the re- 
sult of his own experience, that a choir of from 15 to 20 mixed 
voices can sing with greater ease, swing, and unity, from one copy 
of the Folio edition of the Gracl. Romanian than from ten copies of 


should direct the Singers to bind together the several 
note-groupings, the Words and Phrases in' alternate 
slower and quicker enunciation and with stronger or 
weaker accent into one perfect whole. 1 ) 

8) The subdivision too of the piece into Phrases . 
Periods and Sections depends in a great measure on 
the Conductor. The breathing places are indicated by 
the words and the perpendicular lines or bars drawn 
across the stave, while for Pauses the double lines 
mark the natural place. The Syllables of the same word 
should never be separated. If however such a number 
of notes must be sung to one syllable as to necessitate 
a rest for breathing, then the Choir-Master should be- 
fore hand mark a suitable place in the neuma . where 
the entire choir may take a short, almost imperceptible 
breath. A wise discretion in regulating the speed of the 
movement, is another desirable qualification in a Choir- 
Master. AYhere there is a small number of choristers he 
should be on the alert to prevent too great haste, and 
where a large number, too great a tendency to drawl. 
AVhere these two faults are not guarded against . the 
clear distinct pronunciation of the words and the pure 
just intonation of the notes suffer : and when such el- 
ements are wanting. Gregorian Chant becomes contem- 
ptible, indeed ridiculous. As a rule the style of singing 
Plain-Chant, should be lively, crisp, fresh, at times 

the octavo edition: and then adds; "our forefathers made no blunder, 
when after the discovery of printing they had the Choral Hooks pub- 
lished in Folio." 

') A writer in the "Tablet'* of Sept. 9 th 1876. giving a reason for 
the excellence of the Plain-Chant singing in Ratisbon Cathedral says 
that "every note is led by the conductor's baton, and thus expression 
is gained by emphasis being placed upon certain notes and passages. 
No comparative value as to time is given to the notes themselves, but 
the length of time they are sustained, and the force with which they 
are sung, are made entirely subservient to the meaning of the words, 
as interpreted by the conductor of the choir."' W. H. Brewer. 


very animated, always with an easy rhythmic swing 
throughout, and not that wretched habit of slow, lum- 
bering, tedious drawling, which lias already earned such 
a bad name for Liturgical Music, and in which the voices 
are certain, as the piece advance-, to sing out of tune. 

9) The Conductor should also determine the degree 
of strength or weakness of the note and the increasing 
or decreasing of the voice in the several members or 
phrases. The effects of piano, forte and crescendo are 
not to be overlooked or neglected in Plain-Chant, al- 
though no uniform rule can be established, and still less 
should these marks of expression be printed in the Choral 
Books; the words and the occasion exercising so great 
an influence on the expression of the Chant. Short de- 
scending passages diminish in power of tone as they 
descend, whilst the tone should be increased in ascend- 
ing scales ; the more distant intervals should be entoned 
securely ; Unison. Major Thirds and Fifths demand more 
power and expression, than the Semitones. Minor Thirds. 
Fourths &c. 

10) From all that has been said it is evident that 
conscientious and persevering practice is of paramount 
importance. Where the Choir-Master does not exercise 
his Choristers by continual practice , and keep them 
alive to the sanctity and importance of the duty they 
discharge . but trusts everything to chance . and to 
his long experience and acquaintance with the subject 
matter no blessing or good result can be expected from 
Gregorian Chant rendered by such a choir. More than 
any other kind of Music, Plain-Chant should be deeply, 
attentively studied, and again and again rehearsed, if 
its performance is intended to be effective; for -'Gre- 
gorian Chant is a matter of no easy acquirement, as the 
large schools of past centuries and the examples of 
learned and holy men can testify, but it demands ear- 


nest and profound study." ] ) One or two special or 
general rehearsals, will never enable a Choir to prove 
itself effective , in the different pieces to be chanted 
during the various religious functions. These rehear- 
sals, special and general, must be regular and constantly 
recurring, and must embrace not only the younger or 
less instructed members of the Choir, but also, in large 
choirs, the individual members, and the Chants should 
be repeated again and again until even those who are 
accustomed to trust to their neighbours, and thereby 
become such an unpleasant drag both on Conductor and 
Choir, are made thoroughly sure of their work. A good 
elementary uninterrupted method of instruction is the 
forerunner of a good, natural, easy, certain, worthy and 
edifying Chant. Aut Ccesar, aut nihil ! 

CHAPTER 41st. 


The observations of the last chapter are also ap- 
plicable to Organists, especially when the two functions 
of Choir-Master and Organist are united in the one per- 
son, as is most frequently the case. A glance, moreover, 
at the remarks made on the Organ and its employment in 
Plain-Chant, in the Appendix to the 2 nd part, will clearly 
establish the difference that exists, 1 st between a Pianist 
and an Organist, 2 ndl J between a right skilful Organist 
in a general sense and one whose duty it is to accom- 
pany the Chant. The Organist, in a Plain-Chant Choir, 
should lead the singers, facilitate the delivery of the 

l j Amberger, 1. c. p. 232. 

Chant for them, and by a clear, steady and correct 
playing of the Plain-Chant melody, regulate and control 
its movement, 

The employment of the Organ in the several por- 
tions of the Liturgy, and at the various seasons of the 
year, is regulated by formal Decrees of the Church bear- 
ing on the subject; 1 ) and the sacredness of the functions 
and sublimity of the text which it is called on to ac- 
company, should influence the style of playing to be 

1) The accentus of the Celebrant and Sacred Min- 
isters at the Altar should never be accompanied, and 
during the Elevation the greatest silence and devotion 
should prevail. 2 ) 

2) The use of the Organ is forbidden during Ad- 
vent and Lent, (from Ash -Wednesday to the Gloria 
of Holy Saturday) at Mass, or at the Divine Office, 
when de Tempore. From this rule we must except the 
3 d Sunday of Advent (called Gaudete Sunday), 3 ) and the 
4 th Sunday (Laetare) of Lent ; on which occasions , as 
also on Festivals celebrated ritu dupl. or semidupl. dur- 
ing these penitential seasons, at solemn votive masses, 
and at the Kijrie and Gloria of Holy Thursday, the 
Organ is allowed to play. 

3) The alternate Chants of the Kijrie, Gloria, San- 
ctis and Agnus Dei may be omitted by the singers and 
only played on the Organ, but then the words omitted 

') Bened. XIV. Bullar. magn. Cone. Mediol. L: Organo tantum in 
ecrlesiis locus sit; tibice , cornua, et reliqua musica instruments exclu- 

2 ) The Ceremoniale Episcoporum (from the beginning of the 17 th 
century) and several Provincial Councils speak no doubt of a quiet 
and devotional playing of the Organ during the Elevation, and in Rome, 
except in the Sixtine, this practice is universal, and therefore may be 
tolerated. Nevertheless the silence of the Organ at that solemn moment 
is commanded in several decrees both anterior and subsequent to that 
edition of the Ceremoniale. 

3 ) When the Vigil of Christinas falls on Sunday the Organ is played. 


should be recited by one of the singers mediocri voce. 
This permission however does not extend to the Credo, 
the entire of which must be sung. 1 ) The Tract, Se- 
quence. Offertory and Communion may also be recited 
in the manner described, when the Organ plays; but 
the Introit should be sung entire (minus the repetition 
which may be recited) as also the Gradual, or at least 
a portion of it. 2 ) In Vespers the Antiphons need not 
be sung after the Psalms, but only recited; they 
should always be sung before. The alternate verses of 
the Hymn may be recited in the same manner. 

4) With regard to the Mass for the Dead, there 
is a Decree forbidding the use of the Organ on these 
occasions. Nevertheless Aineri, Regnier, and other ru- 
bricists rely on another decree authorising its use, and 
on the prevailing practice at Rome and many other 
places. The decree is found in a Commentarmm to the 
Caeremoniale compiled by Aloysius Proto of Naples, and 
recently published byPustet; it runs thus: Organi pul- 
satio sono mcesto , et lugubri permitti potest in Missis 
defunctorum, etsi renuat Ordinarius. Die 31. Mart. 1629. 
Savonen. n. 807. — However we may fairly infer that 
it is only allowed in Missis Defunctorum as a support 
to the voices, especially in weak choirs, and not as an 
independent instrument. 

5) Where the custom prevails of substituting the 
music of the Organ for the Chant of the Deo Gratias 
after the Ite Missa est, this practice may be continued, 
according to a decree of the Sacred Congregation of 
Rites. (11. Sep. 1847, in Angelopol, ad 6.) Nevertheless 
the practice of singing the response is more to be en- 
couraged. (See foot-note p. 157.) 

') Cum dicitur symbolum in Missa, non est intermiscendum organum, 
sed illud per chorum cantu intelligibili proferatur. (Cccr.Ep.lib.l.N* 10.) 
2 ) See foot-note page. 128. 


6) The Organist should employ and vary the stops 
on his instrument according to circumstances, and take 
special care that the delivery of the Chant may be en- 
riched with all that light and shade . which the text 
demands, and a well-played instrument can impart. The 
Office of the Organ, — that of handmaid and guide to the 
Chant, — precludes that bad taste which would have good 
Organ-playing consist in a confused noisy jumble of 
melody and harmony with every stop drawn out; because 
such a disproportion of sound between the voices and 
the instrument intended to support them , renders the 
hearing and understanding of the words utterly impos- 
sible. The judicious Organist "clothes the Chant, some- 
" times with lightest breathings and the most gentle 
"lisping, sometimes with grave, majestic tones, that go 
"on increasing in power and fashion themselves to har- 
" monies , whose united sound grows louder and fuller, 
"until the chanting of God's praises becomes like a head- 
long mountain torrent that carries all before it, and 
"consoles and lifts up the heart of the devout Christian.'" 1 ) 

7) Just intonation depends for the most part on 
the Organist. When the Celebrant at the Altar intones, 
it is much to be desired that his intonation should ac- 
cord with that of the choir, so that Priest and People, 
Pastor and flock may praise God in 'unison. To this end 
the Organist should close his Prelude or Interlude on 
the note on which the Celebrant should commence , or 
by drawing a very soft stop, he may just touch the re- 
quired note, and the Priest, if lie have a fair musical 
ear, will have little difficulty in catching it up. 

8) It is undeniable indeed that no amount of effort 
or no mechanical appliance as yet discovered, will enable 
a piped or keyed instrument, such as the Organ, to give 

') Smeddink. II. Jahrgang. Caecilia. p. 25. 


the verbal accent, as the human voice alone can; and 
many rhythmical melodic progressions , call up strange 
and unfriendly chords, which to a modern musician seem 
illegitimate , and have thereby originated those various 
systems of harmonising Plain-Chant, that we have al- 
ready spoken of. However these and similar difficulties 
should not dishearten the young Organist, but rather 
urge him to greater study and more intimate acquain- 
tance with the nature and characteristics of the Church 
modes and of mediaeval harmony, that he may be enabled 
on comparison, to see how very different it is from har- 
mony in the modern acceptation of the term. All that is 
to be desired is, that the worshippers in every Catholic 
Church may be able to realize the truth of Cardinal 
Bona's words: 1 ) "The harmonious tones of the Organ 
"rejoice the sorrowing hearts of men, and remind them 
"of the joys of the heavenly city, they spur on the tepid, 
"they comfort the fervent, they call the just to love, 
"and sinners to repentance." But to attain this desirable 
end the Catholic Organist must also keep before his eyes 
the warning of the same pious and learned Cardinal: 
"The playing, of the Organ must be earnest and appro- 
priate, so that it may not, by its agreeableness, draw 
"to itself and monopolize the whole attention of the soul, 
"but rather furnish motives and an opportunity, for me- 
ditating on the words that are being sung, and thereby 
promote "feelings of true devotion." 

J ) Bona. div. psalm, c. 17. §. 2. ad finem. 

CHAPTER 42nd. 


The system of musical training to be adopted in* a 
Plain-Chant choir, differs in many respects from that 
usually followed in the case of harmonized Church-Music. 
The rhythm of Gregorian Chant, so closely allied as it is 
with the verbal accent, and the treasure of melody in which 
it is so rich; — melody however, which to a singer trained 
only in modern music often seems uncouth and unma- 
nageable — ; furnish, for every class of voice, exercises 
of such difficulty, that even a well-trained chorister, at 
the first attempt, and without special instruction or close 
study of the Gregorian Tone-system, will certainly fail 
to render them effectively. Gregorian Chant requires, be- 
sides good distinct pronunciation, a clear understanding 
of the subject, a quick apprehension of its treatment, 
arid a carefully cultivated voice. Whosoever therefore 
is called upon to sing Gregorian, should in the first instance 
be properly trained by a competent teacher, at least in 
those places where such teachers might be reasonably 
expected to be found ; such as Cathedral Churches and 
Ecclesiastical seminaries. 1 ) And he who can sing Plain- 
Chant well, tunefully, and faultlessly, will be able to 
sing any kind of Church-Music that may be placed be- 
fore him. 2 ) 

We will here set forth in one short paragraph the 
qualifications of a good Plain-Chant Chorister. "He must 

') The Council of Trent commanded that the Chant should be 
taught in all Ecclesiastical Seminaries. Several National and Provincial 
Synods (including Thurles and Maynooth) re-iterate this command ; in 
many places but these Decrees are allowed to remain a dead letter, 
for want of competent teachers. 

2 ; The Domlcapellmeister of Katisbon (Rev. F. X. Haberl) makes 
it a rule to commence the musical education of his boys with Plain- 



obey implicitly and attentively every hint, word, wish 
and direction of the Choir-Master or Conductor, even 
when they may be in opposition to his own bet- 
ter judgment." This blind obedience, easy enough to 
a true musician, should not' spring merely from a love of 
order, but above all from a deep feeling of -humility. 
"In chanting," says St. Ambrose, "moderation is the 
first rule; let the tone be so adjusted, that the hearer 
may not be offended by too loud a voice." 1 ) A genuine 
feeling of reverence for the Lord's house, will never be 
content with having what is prescribed carefully sung; 
but will strive, both in rehearsals 2 ) and performance, to 
express the meaning, importance, and liturgical raison 
d'etre of the Chant itself, and make clear the end and 
spirit of the Church in each of her solemn functions. 
"Who can repeat the wonderful song of the Church, and 
not be moved by it? Hence whosoever undertakes to 
sing Ecclesiastical Chants, must study to know and un- 
derstand what are the feelings and sentiments, which on 
her various Festivals, should come as it were from the 
very heart of the Church, pass through the heart and 
mouth of the Chanter into the hearts of all, and enkindle 
in all a flame of uniform love. It is only thus that Gre- 
gorian Chant can produce its legitimate effect." 3 ) 

All that is necessary for an earnest and effective 
rendering of Plain-Chant is, a heart full of faith, a feel- 
ing of joyful hope, 4 ) a recollected mind, 5 ) a spirit of 

') Ambrosius de Offic. rninist, L. I. c. 18. 

2 ) "The first requisite," says an old theoretician, Jerome of Mo- 
ravia quoted by Coussemacker, "is, that what is to be sung should be 
clearly understood by all, beforehand." 

3 ) Amberger, Zoe. cit. p. 231. 

) "Notes are good tor nothing that come not from a joyful heart. 
Melancholy people may have good voices, but they can never sing well." 
Jerome of Moravia. 

5 ) 1 'Whilst singing think of nothing else but what you are engaged 
at." Bernliard. 


devotion, earnest prayer, 1 ) and the good intention of 
doing all for the greater honour and glory of God. 2 ) 

"The Church has just reason to complain of those, 
who with unpardonable levity, putting aside all the rules 
of the Chant, alter and modify the Tones at pleasure, 
substitute the weakness and agreeableness of the semi- 
tone for the power and earnestness of the full-tone, who 
make no distinction between long and short notes, or 
study not to give their voices a character of devotional 
tenderness and overlook the intrinsic worth of the Chant 
itself , dragging it on lazily , as if it were a stone of 
great weight; now precipitating it in unbecoming haste, 
and again vulgarising it by painful shouting, or by vi- 
tiated or imperfect pronunciation of the vowels, or by 
the adoption of various other faulty mannerisms." 3 ) 

"Bossuet's funeral orations when declaimed by a 
good orator terrify and inspire one , but when' uttered 
by an indifferent reader, not only produce no effect, but 
engender coldness and indifference. So is it with 
Plain-Chant." 4 ) 

"Speaking to yourselves in psalms and hymns and 
spiritual canticles, singing and making melody in your 
hearts to the Lord" (Ephesians V. 19.) 

') In the beginning of an old Psalterium (now the property of the 
Kreisbibliothek in Passau) written in the monastery of Seeon A. I). 1434, 
we find the following prayer for Choristers. Deus omnipotens redemptor 
mundi, qui pro salute humani generis in hunc mundum venisti, pecca- 
tores redimere pretioso sanguine tuo : exaudi orationem meam, per quam 
ego indignus peccator te deprecor, ut psalmi, quos cantabo, digne inter- 
eedant apud te pro peccatis meis. Creator mundi, eunctipotens Deus, 
spes ardentibus, gloria resurgentibus, suppliciter per hos psalmos clemen- 
tiam tuam imploro, quos pro salute vivorum sive defunctorum decantabo, 
ut per eos a perpetuis eripias tormentis et prcemium ceternce beatitudinis 
concedas. Per Christum Dominum nostrum. Amen. 

2 ) "If you seek the edification of your hearers when you sing, the 
more you shun vanity, the more you will edify them." Bonaventura. 

3 ) Amberger, loc. cit. p. 233. 

4 ) Cloet, Recueil de Melodies, Tom. II. p. 30* 




a) recitative Chant. 1 ) 


I. What we have said m the 4 th , 5 th , 6 th and 7 tb 
Chapters must now be recalled to mind. A good reader 
is careful, not only to pronounce his words with due 
consideration for the vowels and consonants, but also to 
group those words together as the context may require, 
and perceptibly distinguish the important syllables, words 
and phrases of a sentence. Psalm-singing is little more. 
Good chanting means good reading. 2 ) 

The Poetry of the Psalms is most simple yet most 
sublime ; the loftiest sentiments are conveyed in concise 
forms of words, but every word is pregnant with meaning 
and capable of receiving the most varied expression. It 
would not be easy to find more suitable melodies where- 
with to invest those words, than the eight Gregorian Tones 
with their various endings prescribed by the Church. 
Sometimes indeed when we hear Vespers sung, we re- 
alize the truth of Mendelssohn's words: "You cannot 
conceive how tiresome and monotonous the effect is, and 
how harshly and mechanically they chant through the 
Psalms. They sing 'with the accent of a number of men 
quarrelling violently, and it sounds as if they were shout- 

l ) We take this partition of the different styles of Chant from 
the work of Cloet mentioned in last chapter (Tom. I. p. 46*), with 
the reserve however that the border line between recitative and modu- 
lated Chant does not appear to be clearly defined, as both come under 
the general laws of Rhythm- 

*) The practice in many places, especially in Germany, when 
teaching the P.- aim-Chants is, to have the pupils read every verse sev- 
eial times over, in order that they may secure the accented syllables, 
the pauses, and the grouping of the words. 


ing out furiously one against another." (Letters from 
Italy &c. p. 169.) But this method of chanting we need 
hardly say . is against the spirit and the wish of the 
Church, and should be attributed to inattention, ignor- 
ance of the language, carelessness in pronunciation, im- 
perfect training or deplorable indifference and indevotion. 
"The voice of the Psalmist should not be harsh or un- 
tuneful, but clear, sweet, and true; Tone and Melody 
should correspond to the sacredness of the service, and 
in the modulation of the voice, christian simplicity, and 
not the art of the theatre, should prevail." *) Would that 
every man, whose duty it is to sing Psalms, repeated 
to himself with the Royal Psalmist : U I will sing praise 
to Thee in the sight of thy angels" 2 ) and considered 
as addressed to himself alone, those words, Psallite sa- 
pient er ; then indeed the many eulogiums lavished by 
the Holy Fathers and the Church on the Psalm-Chants 
would appear reasonable and just, and the counsel 
of St. James the Apostle come to be understood: "Is 
any one of yon sad? Let him pray. Is he cheerful in 
mind? let him sing." (James, cap. V. v. 13.) 

Baini in the Preface to his Tent amen gives some 
useful hints for a devotional and edifying rendering of 
the Psalm-Tones. "The perfection," he says, "of these 
"chants depends on the combined efforts of all engaged, 
"but especially on the Basses who should pronounce the 
"words gently but distinctly and with due regard to 
"correct intonation, the relative length of the syllables, 
"and the meaning of the words." 

The Initium must always be solemn and slow, the 
mediatio distinct, with the syllables judiciously distrib- 
uted amongst the several notes of the inflection ; in the 
Finalis the accented syllable should receive greater 

*) Isidore of Seville, de eccl of fie. 
*) Psalm 137. v. 1. 


power and duration of tone, and all should be careful 
not to do violence to the text, or unduly prolong the 
final syllables. 

Good chanting is in truth an art in itself, and can- 
not be acquired all in a moment. Industrious practice, 
constant attention to the rules of the language, and an 
earnest spirit of harmonious cooperation on the part of 
the choristers are indispensable requisites. 

In festis solemnibus et duplicibus two Chanters in- 
tone the first verse; (always unaccompanied;) in festis 
semidupl. and others of lower rank, only one Chanter. 
The remaining verses of the Psalm are sung by alter- 
nate sides of the Choir, but without the Initimn* The 
words in each verse should be carefully and distinctly 
enunciated ; the recitation moderately slow and rhythmi- 
cal. One side of the choir should not begin a verse 
until the previous verse has been concluded by the other; 
and a perceptible pause should be made at the asterisk 
in the middle of the verse, so that all may begin the 
second portion together. If half of the verse, whether 
before or after the asterisk, be very long, then it is 
the duty of the choir-master to indicate one or more 
breathing places, so that all the words may be sung 
evenly and together. Except the first, all the verses 
of a Psalm may be accompanied by the Organ. The 
same rules hold for the Canticles (Magnificat and Be- 
nedictiis ;) except that in these the words are sung more 
solemnly and slowly (tractius), and the Initium is em- 
ployed with each verse. 

II. The manner of chanting the Prayers, Lessons r 
Gospels &C; according to the Eoman Rite, may be cla-sed 
amongst the most effective arrangements of Gregorian 
Chant, because of its extreme simplicity, suitability and 
variety. Old theoreticians styled this manner of chanting 
choraliter legere, or choral reading, and in their sev- 


eral treatises give special directions for the correct rhyth- 
mical rendering of the same. The notes are so few 1 ), 
and the inflections so simple that they do not call for 
much attention; but it is of the utmost importance that 
the pronunciation, expression and rhythmical declama- 
tion of the text should be carefully practised. In pro- 
fane music there is an axiom : "Recitative is the real 
test of a good singer;" in like manner choral reading, 
which so closely resembles recitative, demands great 
earnestness and distinctness. Heavy cumbersome chant- 
ing, unseemly jerking of the words, an affected tone of 
voice, nasal effects, long drawling of final syllables and 
little grace notes and unauthorised flourishes , are all 
evils to be avoided. 

The reading of the Office of the Dead may perhaps 
be classed under the head of choral reading; and in 
many places faults without number are painfully apparent 
in the manner of going through this solemn and essent- 
ially impressive function. Where time is limited, it would 
be far preferable to use the permission of the Rubric, and 
read but one nocturn with Lauds ; than to run through 
the entire office at express speed, with the pauses at the 
asterisks disregarded, one side never waiting for the 
other to have concluded its verse, a want of uniformity 
in tone, and no apparent effort to combine except on the 
final syllables, giving them an emphasis and prominence 
that utterly destroys the rhythm of the verse and violates 
the elementary rules of prosody. We never could see 
what reason there was for saying: "In terra deserta et 

invia et inaquos&] when both prosody, rhythm and good 

') "De aequalibus quidem vocibus nihil aliud dicendum, nisi quod 
communis vocis impetu proferantur, in modum soluta oratione legen- 
tis." Script. T. I. p. 104. Accentu regulantur quaecumque simplici lit- 
tera hoc est sine nota, describuntur, ut sunt Lectiones &c. (Martyrolog. 
Usuardi ed. 1490 ad calcem.) 


choral reading would require ina^uosa. "The rules 
of rhythm must be observed, even if they were never 
indicated, just as the laws of language would be observed 
even if there were no grammar. As the grammar presup- 
poses the language, and not the language the grammar, 
so also rhythmical rules owe their existence to the ele- 
ments of rhythm implanted in man by the Creator, and 
not vice versa" *) A good system of securing an effective 
reading of the Office, is for two or more of the select 
choir to lead the rest on either side, and give the proper 
swing to the words and carefully observe the pauses. 2 ) 

b) modulated Chant. 

CHAPTER 44th. 


By modulated chant we understand the changing 
or modulating of notes on the several syllables of the 
text ; for the most part only one note is apportioned 
to each syllable, and seldom more than three. For this 
reason modulated Plain-Chant, if we exclude the ac- 
centus which appertains to the Celebrant or Sacred Min- 
isters, is justly esteemed the specially popular chant for 
the masses; and in countries where the Latin language 
is fairly understood, as in Italy and Spain, the Hymns, 
Psalms, Litanies, Sequences &c. are to the present day 
sung with wonderful effect by the congregation. 3 ) 

') Choral und Liturgie. p. 101. Note. 

2 ) Moderatores chori qui clioro didasculi vocari solent constitnant 
pausarios, qui signo uliquo pausas faciant, vel indicent, versusque prce- 
cipitentes cohibeant. (Bonartius de horis canonicis lib. III. c. XX.) 

3 ) Augustinus Confess, lib. X. writes "Primitiva ecclesia ita psal- 
lebat, ut modico flexu vocis faceret resonare psallentem, ita ut pronun- 
tianti vicinior esset quam canenti" 


L In the Hymns we must distinguish those which are 
strictly metrical from the un metrical or prose hymns. 
In the first, the melody and its rendering are guided 
by the metre of the verse and the laws of language 
and accent; in the latter, the melodic phrases are divided 
according to the grammatical construction of the text, 
and therefore present less difficulty than the former. 
"As regards their musical construction, they are models 
of devotional feeling expressed in music; their melody 
goes hand in hand with the sublime movement of the 
poetry,, and serves the more on that account to expound 
the word. The older hymns have as a rule a note for 
each syllable , and only at the end of each portion of 
the context is a neuma or group of notes to be met 
with. The strophes should be sung by alternate sides 
of the choir.'' *) The last strophe may be sung by the 
entire choir. 

A light, easy, free rhythmical swing, corresponding 
to the Festival and the Text is recommended. The alter- 
nate strophes may be recited when the Organ is played. 2 ) 
The first and last strophe, as also the strophe where a 
genuflexion is prescribed, (e. g. crux ave &c.) should 
always be sung. 

To the class of unmetrical hymns belong chiefly the 
Gloria and Te Beam. The Gloria should be sung right 
through, from the intonation of the Priest 3 ) to the end, 
without prelude or interlude. The several phrases 
may be sung, a) alternately by two sides of the choir, 

' ) Father Utto Kornmuller, Lexikon der Jcirchlichen Tonkunst. p. 215. 

2 ) Quod si hymnus cantatur a musicis vcl alternatim ab organa, 
tunc cantores legunt mediocri voce ea verba, quce a musicis seu ab Or- 
gano cantantur. (Ccerem. Ep. Lib. I. 20.) 

3 ) "After the ravishing, seraphic, vocal interweaving of a Palestrina 
Kyrie, the simple Gloria in excelsis Deo. escapes from the mouth of 
the Celebrant with a tone of majestic grandeur and jubilation, worthy 
of proclaiming the glory of the Most High."' Ambros. Geschichte der 
Musik. II. vol. p. 68. 



or, b) by the Chanters and the entire choir, or c) in 
divided choirs for some phrases and all united at some 
others; the division of the choir being so arranged as 
to give a Tenor and Bass for Chanters, or Soprano and 
Alto as Soloists, or Soprano, Alto, Tenor and Bass as 
a Quartett, and then the entire choir. The point of 
alternation is determined by the close of the sentence. 
By a steady intonation, and adoption of the antiphonal 
method just indicated, the soul-stirring melody of this 
angelic hymn will acquire still greater expression and 
fire. But care should be taken not to multiply without 
reason these alternations, and the greatest industry should 
be employed in the execution , to keep closely bound 
together the several melodic phrases of the Chant. 

"The Te Deum" according to Baini "may be sung 
"in two ways : either alternately by the Chanters and 
"full choir, or alternately by the Chanters and Congre- 
gation, — or choir against choir." 1 ) The same method 
in a word, may be adopted as in the case of the Gloria. 
At the words : Pleni sunt coeli and Te ergo qumsumus, 
the divided choirs unite and sing the former phrase 
fortissimo; the latter softly, slowly and with great ex- 
pression. At the closing words : In 'te Domine all unite 
again, and bring this solemn Hymn of Praise and thanks- 
giving to an end, as if with one heart and voice. In 
both the Gloria and Te Deum the Organ may accom- 

') In Rome it is the universal custom on occasions of public 
thanksgiving, to sing all the phrases of the <l Te Deum" to the same 
melody (that of the 2 nd phrase Te aternum &c). This makes it easy 
for the congregation to join. Wherefore whilst preserving the author- 
ised Chant of the AniipJionarium for the end of Matins when sung in 
Choir; Fr. X. Haberl, the editor under the S. R. C. of the new choral 
books, in the Organ accompaniment to the Vesperale, has arranged the 
Te Deum according to this simpler chant, and made an application to 
the Sacred Congregation for formal approbation of the same. As soon 
as the Decree arrives from Rome, this form will be found in the Organ 
book just alluded to, and in the new (8 V0 ) edition of the Graduate 
Bom. which are now going through the press. 


pany all the sentences after the Intonation, and a wide 
field is opened up to the clever organist , by judicious 
light and shade, simple or complex harmonies, and the 
prudent use of louder or softer stops, to introduce 
variety into these simple, elevating, incomparably beauti- 
ful hymns of praise, and to keep both choir and con- 
gregation firmly united in bonds of heartfelt devotion. 

2. The Melodies of the 5 sequences (see Chap. 
21 st p. 129) are so simple in their progression, as to 
form a striking contrast with the more elaborate and 
extended settings of the Gradual, Alleluia or Tract 
which precedes them. As a rule there is a note for each 
syllable, and this measured rhythm secures even in weak 
and imperfectly trained choirs an effective rendering. 
The antiphonal method of singing already described 
may be adopted here also, the close of each strophe 
marking the point , of alternation. 

3. The solemn intonation of the Credo by the Ce- 
lebrant is followed immediately by the remaining words 
of this great Act of Faith, which may be sung by all 
together or alternately; as in the case of the Gloria 
but no word should be omitted. The melody is pecu- 
liarly suitable for a united congregational rendering by 
all who take part even in the most crowded religious 
solemnity. If it be sung without accompaniment, then 
it should be accelerated a little; we prefer a swinging, 
well-accented, unaccompanied rendering of the Credo, to 
the best and cleverest Organ-accompaniment. 

4. The Preface is introduced by an antiphonal chant 
between Priest and Choir. In the Introductory Chapter 
we have registered Mozart's well authenticated estima- 
tion of this most beautiful chant. Dr. Bom. Mettenleiter 
in his Aphorisms on Gregorian Chant, J ) says with regard 

x ) In Pastor bonus, a supplement to a Swiss Art journal. 10. Aug. 186L 


to the Preface and Pater noster : "The Chants of the 
Prcefatio and Pater noster are the most sublime that 
have ever been or can be produced. A thousand times 
have we both sung them and heard them sung- and if 
we live to hear them a thousand times more, we will 
never grow the least tired of them ; on the contrary, at 
each hearing, we catch something previously unheard, 
we discover a new beauty, the feeling of God's presence 
strikes us more forcibly, the breathings of the Holy 
Spirit become more and more distinctly audible . . . and 
yet but four notes are employed to produce all these 
effects. Who can fail to recognize the omnipotent hand 
of God in this simple work, when he compares it with 
the innumerable means at the service of man not pro- 
ducing one tithe of such an effect. The melody is as 
much God's work, as the language itself. The Angels and 
Saints understand it, we are barely able to stammer it. 
The solving of this mystery too, will form a portion of 
our happiness in heaven. A well cultivated musical ear 
will undoubtedly be able to make more out of the words; 
but it is the Spirit, which at all times, but here most 
especially, vivifies the letter, and pleads for us and asks 
for us with unspeakable groanings." The Choir should 
answer the Priest in just intonation and in a firm united 
body of tone expressive of both text and melody. The 
Organ may accompany the responses, but not the 
Chant of the Priest. 

Equally beautiful if not still richer forms of melody 
are given to that incomparable song of triumph the 
Exultet jam Angelica of Holy Saturday ; "as joyous yet 
as dignified a piece of declamatory music, if I may so 
speak, as is anywhere to be found/' *) After the Chant 
of the Pater noster which closely resembles the Preface, 

') Card. Wiseman 11 Four Lectures on the Ceremonies of Holy Week" 
p. 70. 


the Agnus Bei is sung by the Choir, united or divided, 
and repeated three times , the third repetition closing 
with Bona nobis pacem instead of Miserere nobis. 

5. The Litanies are especially suited for large 
choirs, or congregational singing. There are but three 
formally approved of by the Church, viz: Be omnibus 
Sanctis, Litanice Laiiretance, and de Ss. Nomine Jesu, 1 ) 
the Chants for which are found in the new official Bi- 
rectorium Chori. One or more Chanters distinctly and 
carefully sing the invocations, to each of which the 
Choir or Congregation answer, and if possible without ac- 
companiment. (See Chap. 33 d p. 204.) The Responses in 
the Mass or during the divine Office follow the same 
rules of clear united intonation, distinct enunciation and 
well modulated delivery. We would direct special atten- 
tion to the immense superiority in regard of effect, of re- 
sponding Amen on one note ^EzE=^t 5 instead of the 

A-men _ t 

too common practice , of singing ^EE^EEzES:: 

A- men. 

We cannot conclude this chapter without giving the 
most useful observations of the editor of "Choral unci 
Liturgie." u The effect of a prolonged syllable is 
essentially different from that of an accented syllable: 
the latter expresses its power more to the ear of the 
hearer, than in the mouth of the singer; with the pro- 
longed syllable it is quite the reverse; the accented 
syllable is better understood than heard, the prolonged 
more heard than understood. The Gregorian note should 
not exercise the slightest influence , on the length or 
brevity, force or weakness of the syllable placed under 

') This last-mentioned Litany is only approved of for certain places, 
viz ; for all Germany, and for- such Dioceses, where the Ordinary may 
have received from Kome formal permission, and the correct text as 
revised by the S. R. C. This permission exists for the Diocese of Dublin, 
and other Dioceses in Ireland. 


it; on the contrary it rather receives from the syllable 
its duration and precise determination; the text is here 
supreme, and the notes must acknowledge its supremacy, 
not vice versa .... The sense should not be interfered 
with by pauses, nor the word divided or broken up... 
Every pause is introduced or prepared by a more or 
less remarkable prolongation of the note immediately 
preceding it, so that sometimes, instead of an interruption 
of the Chant, only a gentle expiring of one note and a 
leading up to the next takes place, and at other times 
these gentle breathings end in a gradual cessation of sound. 
In order to prepare the ear (at the close of a musical 
idea) for the approaching end, the last accented syllable 
should be delivered with a greater impulse of the voice... 

thus : Doniinns vob\scu--m, and not Dominus Y0biscu--m, 
To these universal and natural rules may be added a 
supernatural element, which is of the highest importance 
in the rhythmical delivery of the chant, i.e.: the Ac- 
cent of the Holy Spirit, which in the sacred Chants 
of the Church breathes into us with unspeakable sigh- 
ings; — -the Accent of Faith which gives power to our 
voice , to pour through the ear into the hearts of men 
the mysteries of truth with irresistible force; the Ac- 
cent of humble self-conciousness and firm confidence in 
God; the Accent of that all absorbing joyful feeling of 
devotion and thankfulness, which pours over those sacred 
melodies such a mysterious heavenly enamel, as to cover 
their earthliness and sup denaturalize them, which changes 
sinful men into penitents, and prepares them to join in 
those heavenly choirs where they shall sing the praises 
of God for ever and ever." 


c) Chants in ne um as or grouped notes. 
CHAPTER 45th. 

In the more elaborate Chants of the Mass and 
Office such as the Introits, Graduals, Offertories, Com- 
munions, Antiphpns and Responsories, the principles laid 
down in the preceding chapter hold good: "Potius con- 
siderandus est sensus quam modidatio" i. e. The Text 
is supreme, and the Chant must be a free reci- 
tation. In reply to the question: "how should neumas 
or groups of notes and such like extended musical forms 
be sung, how should they be kept together, and how 
distributed over the text, so that the recitative character 
of the chant may remain, and the sense and concord of 
the text be not altered?" we must again have recourse 
to the rules laid down in "Choral und Liturgie" x ) and 
answer : 

I. "The Jubilations, which are all musical forms 
without an underlying text, should not be sung as if 
they were independent phrases and merely musical or- 
naments altogether separated from any textual portion 
of the piece; they are rather a re-inforcing of the me- 
lodic accent, and are ornaments which should be closely 
bound up with the same, in a subordinate sense how- 
ever." "Therefore it is not without reason that we find 
jubilations employed on the gentle sighs of a Kyrie, on 
the sublime words of the Sanctus and above all on the 
syllables, of the joyful and triumphant Alleluia" 

II. "The singer in chanting the Jubilations should 
always be guided by the meaning of the words to which 
they are joined, he should keep himself impressed with 

') Loc. cit. p. 121 and sequ. 2 ) See foot-note p. 127. 


that meaning, and so sustain the musical formula that 
it may assume a decided shape." "The words of the 
text to which short or long note-groupings are annexed 
must receive such a re-inforced accent and marked ex- 
pression, that all the notes which follow immediately 
may appear , as it were , to flow from them and fall 
easily on the ear."- . 

III. "The elements of neumatic periods, i. e. the 
determined neumas or forms, should according to- their 
structure , be kept apart , be distinguished from each 
other, or brought into close union, just as the syllables, 

words, phrases and sentences of a discourse." 


1Y. "Even in the jubilations the notes have no time- 
value and only serve to indicate the modulation of the 
voice." The simple notes ■ ♦ J are as the vowels in syl- 
lables, and their duration depends on the vowel over which 
they are placed. (See Chap. 7 th .) All ascending neumas 
(igt Podatus, zzr jEfc: Scandicus &c, see Chap. 3 d p. 40.) 
require an increased force of expression (crescendo) until 
the highest note is reached. All descending neumas 

(EEfEE Clivus, and E?f$^E Glimacus, see page 40) a cor- 
responding decrescendo, by a gradual diminution of tone- 
power. The union of ascendiDg and descending neumas 
(zzgf^E. Torculus, see p. 40) is to be rendered partly 
as Podatus and partly as Glivus. "However, in con- 
sequence of the concussion of these contrary forces, the 
accents should not be marked with the same strength 
as in each of these note-groupings when separate ; the 
impulse of the voice should rather be diffused on both 
sides over each note, so that all as nearly as possible 
may receive the same accentuation." *) 

') The management of the accent in the Neuma called Torculus 
has some analogy with compound words in English or other modern 


"Too much accent on the principal note will render 
the Chant affected and unworthy, on the other hand too 
little will make it drawling and monotonous. Moreover 
the character and progression of the piece, and the voice 
power available, must essentially control the amount of 
emphasis to be given to the higher notes, or the amount 
of decrescendo to be employed so as to bring about a 
graceful and smooth execution. Good accentuation and 
a certain sacredness and unction 1 ) in the delivery, com- 
pensate for the absence of much voice power, but not 
vice versa; above all however it is naturalness which 
invests the performance with a character of devout mo- 
deration and discreet piety." 

Before concluding we think it well to give an illu- 
stration of the principles advanced in the preceding 
paragraphs. We select an Alleluia with its correspond- 
ing verse, and give it in modern musical notation, not 
that we prefer this method of writing the Chant, but 
that we may make as clear as possible on paper, for 
such as are not well acquainted with Plain-Chant, what 
could be much better explained, by word of mouth. 
We take this Allleuia and Verse from the 12 th Sunday 
after Pentecost (Grad. Bom. p. 319). The fundamental 
idea of this particular piece is the prayer of a soul 
who in her distress calls on God for assistance against 
her enemies, (the Introit begins with Beits in adjutorium 
meum intende) and who through her persevering prayer 
has begun to feel a joyous confidence in her helper. 
The Gradual runs thus: "I will bless the Lord at all 

languages; e. g. water, and carrier have distinct accents when spoken 
separately; in the compound form water-carrier, though the accents 
are not altered, still there is a perceptible difference in accentuation . 

') Cicero writes "aurium quoddam admirabile judicium, quo indi- 
cantur in vocis cantibus varietas sonorum, intervalla, distinctio et vocis 
genera multa" 



times, his praise shall be always in niy mouth. In the 
Lord shall my soul be praised; let the meek hear and re- 
joice," (Ps. 33.) Then follows the Alleluia with the verse 
"Dowiine, Beus salutis mece , in die clamavi et 

Lord , the God of my salvation in the day I have cried and in 

nocte coram te" 
the night before thee. 

For the expression of this assurance the 3 d mode is 
selected, of which one of the characteristics is strong 
feeling (See p. 87). — If the Gradual immediately pre- 
ceding, which is in the 7 th mode, be transposed down- 
wards a minor third, commencing with e, /# &c, and 
closing with f%, e the pitch of both pieces is equalized, 
and the character of the Alleluia {e 9 g, f) whilst dis- 
tinguishable from the Gradual seems to blend with it. 

In Gregorian notation it is as follows : 

Ton, ill. _ ^ 

Al-le - - hi - ja. t. Do - mi- 

ne De - us sa - lu - tis me - ae , in di - e 

cla-ma-vi et no - cte co - ram te. Alleluja, ut supra. 

According to the principles just laid down, the 
manner in which this should be sung may be thus ex- 
pressed in modern notation. The Chanters first sing the 
Alleluia and the full choir repeats. 

_J 1 1 ^j — ^i ~j j_ 

W_ m S2 9 ' 

Al-le - - - - - lu - - ja. 


a -« - - a 

- tis me - ge, in di - e cla-ma - vi 

^ ~- ^ "■ — — i i 

et no - - cte co - - - ram te. 

If the neumatized Chants (Introitus, Graduate, Alle- 
luia, Tractus, Offertoriiim, Communio, Ardiplionce, Be- 
sponsoria &c), were but rendered in this manner with 
due regard to the meaning of the words and their con- 
text, to the modulation of the voice, and just pronun- 
ciation of the syllables, in a word, according to the rules 
laid down, then indeed would the prediction of Card. 
Bona 1 ) be verified: "Nos antem generibus musicce jugi- 
ter exerceamur, in concordia vocum et morum laudes di- 
vinas in hoc exilio decantantes, donee mereamur divince 
musicce consort es fieri, et ad consummatissimos cum San- 
ctis Angelis Hymnos elevari." 

') Be divina PsaJmodia, cap. XVII. §. V. 5. 

O. A. M. D. G. 





(The numbers after the words refer to the Page of this manual where 
they happen to occur.) 


A. When placed before the Day of the 
Week is the Dominical Letter as 
e. g. A. Bom. 18. post Pent,, which 
changes every year with the letters 
B to G. For instance if G be the 
Dominical Letter for the year then 
a, falls on Monday, (Fer. 2.), b, 
on Tuesday (Fer. 3.) &c. In Leap 
year there are two Dominical Let- 
ters, e. g G. F. 

A. = albus, white, is placed on 
the right hand of the page, and 
indicates the colour of the Vest- 
ments to be used (Color Par amen- 

a = (db before a vowel) from, of, 
e. g. Vesp. a cap.; see p. 201. 

Abb. — Abbas, an Abbot, seep. 110. 

absque = without. 

ac = and. 

ad = at, to, unto. 

add. — additur or adduntur (e. g. 
2 Alleluia) when 2 Alleluias are 
to be added on in Paschal time; 
see p. 113. 

adultus = an adult. 

Adv. = Adventus, Advent, 

sestiva pars — the summer part or 
3 d volume of the Roman Breviary. 

al. = alias, otherwise. 

a. 1. = aliquibus locis , in some 
places; see page 110. 

alius, alii &c. — another person. 

alternatim = alternately, antipho- 
nally; see page 113. 

Ang. == Angelus, an Angel ; Angeli 
Custodes, the Angels Guardian. 

Anniversarius = the Anniversary r 
or Annual Commemoration. 

Annuntiatio B. M. V. = Annun- 
ciation of the B. V. M. 

annus = year. 

ante = before; antea, previously. 

antequam == sooner than, before. 

Ant. == Antiphona, Antiphon ; see- 
page 161. 

Ap. or App. = Apostolus or Apo- 
stoli; an Apostle, or Apostles. 

apparet = appears. 

appositus = applied, added on. 

apud == at, with. 

Arch. = Archangelus, Archangel. 

Ascensio == the Ascension. 

Assuniptio B. M. V. = the Assum- 
ption of the Blessed Virgin Mary. 

at == but. 

atque = and. 

Aug. = Augustus , the month of 
_ August, 
aut •= or. 

autumnalis pars = the Autumn 
quarter, or 4 th vol. of the Breviary 



B. Dominical Letter; see A. 

B. before proper names, = Beatus, 
Blessed, e. g. B. M. V. the Blessed 
Virgin Mary. 

Bno or Benedo = Benedictio, Bless- 
ing; see also p. 185. 

Bened. = Beneclictus, the Canticle 
of Zachary; see page 191. 

bis = twice. 

bissextilis annus — Leap year. 
Brev. = Breviarium, the Breviary; 
see page 111. 

B. r. or Br. rec. — Breviarium recens, 
a recent edition of the Breviary. 

br. = brevis, short; brevior, shorter; 
brevissimus, the shortest. 


C. Dominical Letter; see A. 
calce, e. g. in calce = at the end. 
Campanum == Bell. 

Candela ==. Candle. 

€ant. === Canticum, Canticle. 

cant. = cantatur, it is song; Missa 
cantata a Mass that is sung. 

cap. == capitulum, little Chapter; a 
short Lesson from the Breviary 
which is read or chanted at all the 
hours from Lauds to Vespers (both 
included) immediately after the 
Psalms and before the Hymn. See 
pages 190 and 201. 

caput — the beginning, Head, Chapter. 

Cathedra = Chair, Throne, Cathe- 
dralis Ecclesia, the Cathedral or 
Bishop's Church, where the Bishop's 
throne is set up. 

cessat = ceases. 

Chr. = Christus. 

Cin. = e. g. Cinerum dies, Ash- 
Wednesday; see page 105. 

circa = about. 

Circumcisio = Circumcision. 

cl. = classis, Rank or Class, see p. 107. 

Collegiata ecclesia ■— a church en- 
dowed with canonical benefices. 

com. = commemoratio , a comme- 
moration; see page 191. 

Comm. = Commune, the Common ; 
see page 109. 

Compl. = Completorium, Compline, 
see page 201. 

concio = a sermon. 

Conceptio B. M. V. = Immaculate 
Conception of the B. V. M. 

cf. — confer, compare. 

concordat = agrees. 

C. or Confessor = a Confessor. 

C. P. = Confessor Pontifex, a Con- 
fessor and Bishop. 

C. non P. == Confessor non Pon- 
tifex, a Confessor not a Bishop. 

conj. = conjungitur, is joined. 

consuetudo = custom. 

C. M. = conventualis Missa, the 
conventual Mass which is only cel- 
ebrated in Cathedral and Collegiate 
Churches, and in some religious 

coram = before, in presence of; 
e. g. coram Sanctissimo Sacra- 
mento, in presence of the Blessed 
Sacrament; coram Episcopo , in 
presence of the Bishop. 

Cordis Jesu == the Sacred Heart of 

Corpus = the body, Corpus Christi, 

Feast of Christ's body, 
eras = to-morrow, also crastinus, 

the day following. 
Cr. = Credo; the Creed. 
Crux = the Cross, 
cujus = whose ; cui, to whom, 
cum = with; e. g. cum Oct., with 

an Octave, 
curr. = current; e. g. Off. currens, 

the Office occurring. 


D. , Dominical Letter; see A. 

de = of, e. g. Vesp. de sequ., Ve- 
spers of the following; see p. 200, 

Dedic. = Dedicatio — Dedication, 
(of a Church). 

deest or desunt = wanting. 

Def. — Defunctus, the deceased. 

dein or deinde — then , after that. 

deinceps = thenceforth. 

die. = dicitur or dicuntur, is said 
or are said; e.g. die. Credo, the 
Credo is said. 


dies = day; e. g. de 4 die infra 
Oct., of the 4 th day within the 

d. f. == dies ftxus, fixed day, to in- 
dicate the regular day on which 
the Feast should be celebrated, if 
it had not been transferred. 

distributio — division. 

D. = Doctor Ecclesice; Doctor of 
the Church, see page 110. 

Dom. = Dominica, Sunday; see 
page 105. 

Dnus or Dni = Dominus or Do- 
mini, the Lord, e. g. D. N. J, C. == 
Domini Nostri Jesu Christi. 

dum = during, whilst. 

duo == two; duodecim, twelve. 

dupl. = duplex, a double; see p. 107. 


E. , Dominical Letter, see A. 

ea — de ea indicates that there is 
no Feast of a Saint Ac, to be ce- 
lebrated, and that the Officium of 
the day (from the Proprium de 
Tempore, and Psalterium) is to 
be recited; e. g. Fer. 4 de ea, 
Wednesday; see page 105. 

Eccl. = ecclesia, the Church. 

ed. = editio, edition. 

ei = to him. 

ejus = his or its; e. g. ejus loco, 
in its stead. 

ejusdeu), see idem. 

elev. = elevatio Ss. Sacram. = the 
Elevation of the consecrated ele- 
ments in the Holy Sacrifice. 

eo = de eo [sabbato], of Saturday; 
see above ea. 

Epiph. = Epiphania Domini, the 
Epiphany of our Lord; 6 th of Jan. 

E. or Ep. = Episcopus, Bishop; 
in union with C. = Ep. Con- 
fessor , Ep. M. = Episc. Martyr. 

Epist. = Epistola; the Epistle or 
Lesson, see page 126. 

erat == was; esset, would or should 

est = is 

et = and ; et — et, both — and. 
etiam = also; etiamsi, although. 

Ev. — Evangelium, the Gospel; see 
page 129. Evangelista, Evangelist, 
ex = from, out of. 
excepto = excepted, 
excl. — exclusive, exclusive of. 
exinde = from thenceforth, 
extra = outside of. 


F. , Dominical Letter, see A. 

facit = makes ; facto = being made. 
Fer. = feria, week-day. 
Fest — festum, a Feast or Festival- 

fin. == finis, the end; finito, being 

fit = is clone, is made; fieri potest, 

may be done, 
fixus = fixed, determined; seed, f. 
f. = fuijt, was. 


G. , Dominical Letter; see A. 
generale = general, e. g. manda- 

turn generate, a general, or uni- 
versal command. 

genuflexio = a genuflexion, a bend- 
ing of the knee. 

Gl. — the Gloria. 

Grad. = Graduate, the Gradual, 
i. e. the Book containing all the 
Mass Chants; or the special Chant 
which comes after the Epistle; see 
pages, 100 and 127. P salmi Gra- 
duates are Psalms 119^ to 133*. 

gravis = grave, important; e. g. 
pro re gravi, on an important oc- 


hac, licec, hanc, lias, liarum &c, the 
several case-endings of the demon- 
strative pronoun hie, this or he. 

hebd. == hebdomas, week, major, 
the great (or Holy) Week. 

heri = yesterday. 

hest. = hestema dies, yesterday. 

hie = this (a pronoun). 

hieuialis pars = the winter quarter, 
or 1st vol. of the Breviary. 


hodie = to-day; hodiernus, this day. 
hon. = honor; e. g. in honor em, 

in honour of. 
hora = hour. 

hujus, huic, hunc, case-endings of 

Hymn. — hymnus, the Hymn. 


Ibi and ibidem — there , in the 

same place. 
Id. = that. 

idem = the same; with the case- 
endings ejusdem, eidem, eiindem, 
eodem, iidem, Usdem &c. 

igitur = wherefore. 

ii = these . the same (from is) ; 
iidem, the same (plural). 

iile = that (demonstrative pronoun); 
he, she, it (personal pronoun) with 
the case-endings UUus, Mi, ilium, 
illo, illorum, illis &c. 

Immac. — immaculata, immaculate. 

immediate = immediately. 

in = in j {with accusative) , into, 
unto, to, upon, for, according to ; 
(ivith ablative) in, within, among, 
on, with, by, at. 

incipit, or incipiunt = begins, or 
they begin. 

inclinat = inclines, bows; inclinatio. 
an inclination. 

incl. = inclusive, included. 

indutus = clad. 

indulgentia = an indulgence. 

infirmus = sick. 

infra = within or below; ut in fra, 
as below. 

initium = the beginning. 

Innoc. = Innocentes, the Holy In- 

integer = entire, the whole. 

inter = between, under. 

intra — between, within. 

Intr. = Introitus, the Introit, see 
pag:e 113. 

Inventio = the finding; e. g. In- 
vent™ S. Grucis, the finding of 
the Holy Cross. 

Invit. = Invitatorium, the Invita- 
tory; see page 179. 

ipse = he himself, with the case- 
endings ipsius, ipsi, ipsum, ipso, 
ipsorum, ipsis, ipsos <&c. 

itaque === wherefore. 

item — likewise. 

jacet = lies, is found, 
jam = now, already. 
Jan. = Janudr ius , the month of 

J. T. = Jesu tibi and indicates the 
strophe of those Hymns of similar 
metre, which on certain occasions 
is to be sung instead of the last 
strophe : 

Jesu tibi sit gloria, 
Qui natus es de Virgine, 
Cum Patre et almo Spiritu, 
In sempiterna scecula. 
I jubet = orders, commands. 
Jul. =• Julius, July. 
Jun. = Junius, June, 
jun. = junior, the younger, 
jiingitnr = is joined; juncto being 

jure = justly, with reason, 
jussu = by order of. 
jnvat = helps, 
juxta = nigh, according to. 


Kalendarium = Calendar. 
Kal. = Kalendce, the first day of 
the Month. 


Lamentatio == Lamentation; see 
p. 187. 

Laud. = Laudes, Lauds; see p. 189. 

laudabilis = praiseworthy, 

L. or LI. = Lectio, Lectiones, the 

Lesson or Lessons; see p. 186. 
legitur = is read. 
lib. = ad libitum, at pleasure. 
Lib. = Liber, Book, 
liber = free. 

licet = is allowed, although. 
Lit. = Litania, the Litany, 
locus = a place, 
lux = light. 



Magis = more. 

Magn. — Magnificat. 

magnus == great. 

major = greater; e.g. dupl.majus, 
a greater double; see p. 107. 

mane = in the morning. 

manus = the hand. 

iff. or Mm. = Martyr or Marty res. 

Martyrologium = the Martyrology ; 
see p. 198. 

Mat. — Matutinum, Matins. 

maximus = the greatest. 

M. S. mut. 3. Vers. m. t. v. or (in the 
Irish Directory) f, indicates that 
the third line of the 1 st strophe of 
the Iste Confessor is changed ; see 
p. 181. 

Missa == Mass; Missale, Massbook, 

M. C. see C. M. 

minor = lesser; minus, e.g. dupl. 

min., lesser double; see p. 107. 
mob. = mobilia festa, movable feasts, 
modus = the manner, 
more, e. g. solito = in the usual way. 
mors == death; mortuus, dead, 
mutatur = is changed; see above 

M. S. 


Nam = tor. 

Nat.. == Nativitas, Birth, 
ne == lest. 

nec, neque or neve — nor, and not, 
or not; nec — nec, neither — nor. 

nemo = no person. 

n. = niger, black (colour of the 

nihil — nothing. 

nisi = unless. 

Noct. = Nocturnes, Nocturns; see 
p. 182. 

nocte = in the night, by night, 
nomen = name; nominis (genitive 

case) of the name, 
non == not, e. g. C. n. P. Confessor 

not Bishop. 
Non. = Nona (a minor hour) ; see 

p. 199. 
nondum = not yet. 
nonnulli == some. 

nonnnnquam = sometimes. 

not. = notatur, it is indicated or 

novus == new. 
nullns == no one, none, 
nura = whether, 
numerus = number, 
nunquam = never, 
nupt. = nuptice, marriage. 


ob = on account of. 

obitus dies = day of death. 

observatur = is observed; obser- 
vandum est, to be observed. 

Oct. = Octava, the Octave ; see p. 105. 

Off. = Officium, the Office, and com- 
prises all the Chants and Prayers 
to be gone through in the Holy 
Sacrifice and the Divine Office ; 
Officium divinum specially indi- 
cates the office of the Breviary, 
and does not include the Mass. 

omittitur == is omitted ; omisso, 
being omitted. 

omn. = omnis, all, every one; om- 
nes, omnia, all. 

or. — oratio, Prayer. 

Org. = Organum, the Organ. 


Pag. = pagina, the page. 

Palm. == Falmce, e. g. Bom. Pal- 
marum, Palm-Sunday. 

Pp. = Papa, the Pope. 

Parochus = the Parish Priest ; pa- 
rochialis, parochial. 

pars = part; partim, partly. 

parvulus = an infant. 

Pass. = ^assio, the Passion; e. g. 
Dom. Passionis , Passion-Sunday. 

Pasch. = Pascha, Easter; pascha- 
lis, Paschal. 

Patronus = the Patron, Patron Saint. 

Patroc. = Patrocinium, the Patro- 

Pentec. = Pentecoste , Pentecost, 

per = through, during, 
permissu = by permission of; per- 

mittitur, it is allowed. 


Plag. e. g. Fest. 5. Flag. = Feast 

of the five wounds. 
Plan. plic. = Planetce plicatae, 

folded chasubles, such as are worn 

by the Deacon and Subdeacon in 

Lent and Advent, 
plures = many ; plurium, of many ; 

pluribas, to many, 
plurimi = very many, most people, 
plus — quam = more — than, 
pomeridianus = in the afternoon, 
ponitur = is placed ; positus, being 


Pont, or P. = Pontifex, a Bishop; 
Pont. Sup. or Summus, the chief- 
Bishop, the Pope. 

post == after; postea, afterwards; 
postquam, after that. 

Postcommunio == the Post -Com- 
munion or Prayers before the Ite 
missa est. 

prse — before. 

praecedens = preceding; e.g. comm. 
proceed., Commemoration of the 

praeceptum = precept; prcecipit, 

praeparatio == preparation. 

Praefatio = the Preface. 

Praepositus = the Superior; prcepo- 
nitur, is preferred or placed before. 

prsescriptum — a rule or decree. 

praes. == prcesens, present. 

praeter = besides, except, in addi- 
tion to ; prceterea, moreover. 

praeteritus = past, gone by. 

Prima =~ Prime, (a minor hour); 
see p. 195. 

primus = the first; primum, first 
or firstly. 

prior = earlier, higher. 

priv. = privata; e. g. Missa pri- 
vata, private or low Mass, to dis- 
tinguish it from Solemn Mass or 
Missa cantata. 

prius = first, beforehand; prius- 
quam, before that. 

pro = for, instead of. 

procul = far, distant. 

prohibetur = is forbidden. 

prope = near, close by; proprior, 
nearer; proximus, the nearest, next. 

Proph. = Proplieta or Prophetia, 
a Prophet or Prophecy. 

propr. — proprius, peculiar; Pro- 
prium Diocesis, the Proper or 
Special Office of the Diocese; see 
p. 107. 

prout == according as. 

Ps. = Psalms ; Psdlt. = Psalterium, 
the Psaltery or first portion of the 
Breviary down to Compline. 

publ. = publicus, public. 

publicatio = publication, announ- 

pulsatur == is played; e. g. Orga- 
num or Campanum pulsatur, the 
Organ is played, or the Bell is rung. 

Purif. = Purificatio B. M. V. = 
Candlemass Day, the Purification 
of the B. Y. M. 


Quadr. = Quadragesima, Lent, 
quseritur = is asked; qucestio, a 

quam, see tarn or qui; also as. 
quando = when, 
quare == why, wherefore, 
quatuor = four. 

que at the end of a word = and. 

qui, who, quae, who (feminine), quod, 
what; with the case-endings cujus, 
of whom, cui, to whom, quern, quam, 
whom, quo, by whom, quorum, 
quarum, of whom (plur.), quibus, 
quos, quas <&c. 

quia = because. 

quicumque = whosoever. 

quidam = a certain person. 

quilibet = whoever, anyone. 

quinque = five; quinquies , five 

Quinquag. = Quinquagesima (Sun- 

quod = that; see also qui. 

quoque = also. 

quoniam because, since. 

quotannis = annually. 

quotidie = daily. 

quoties or quotiescumque = as 

often as. 
quum = as, since. 



Rec. = recens , new ; recentior, 

Reg. = Begum , of Kings ; e. g. 

Lib. I. Beg., 1 st book of Kings, 
rel. = reliqua Sc.; the rest, what 

reperitur = is found, 
rep. = repetitur, is repeated ; repetit, 

he repeats; repetitio, a repetition. 
Requ. = Bequiem, a Mass for the 


1$. or Resp. = Besponsorium, Re- 
sponsory, or Response ; 1$. br. see 
p. 197. 

Res. = Besurrectio, Resurrection, 
ritus — rite or form of a function; 

also rank of a festival, ritu dupl. 

or semid.; "Bitaale," Ritual. 
Rog. = Bogat.; e.g. Fer.II.Bo- 

gationum , Monday in Rogation 


r. = rubrus, red, (colour of the 


Sabb. = Sabbatum, Saturday, 
sacer = sacred, holy. 
Sac. = sacerdos, a Priest, 
ssepe = often. 

S. = Sanctus, holy, Saint; Ss. = 
Sancti (plur.), Saints, or Sanctis- 
simum, the Most Holy. 

Sc. = scilicet, forsooth, namely. 

scire = to know. 

Scr, = scriptura, the Scriptures; 
scriptus, written. 

S. O. = scriptura occurrens, the 
sciipture Lessons of the l st Nocturn 
in Matins prescribed for that day. 

se = himself. 

Seer. = Seer eta , the Secrets or 
Prayers read by the Priest before 
the Preface. 

secreto == silently, in secret. 

secundum == according to. 

secundus = the second. 

sed = but. 

sem. = semiduplex, a semidouble ; 

see p. 106. 
semper = always. 

septem = seven; septimus, the 

sepultiira = sepulture, burial, 
sequ. = sequens , the following; 

see p. 200; sequitur, follows. 
Sequ. = Sequentia, the Sequence; 

see p. 129. 
sero = late, towards evening, 
servatur = is observed 
seu or sive = or, whether, 
sex = six; sextus, the sixth; Sexta, 

Sext, see p. 199. 
si = if. 

sibi = to himself, 
sic = so, thus, 
sicut = as, as also, 
silent = remain silent; e.g. silent 
Organa, the Organ remains silent, 
simiiis = like. 

simpl. = simplex, simple; see p. 106. 
sine = without, 
singuli = each, every one. 
sive = see seu. 

Soc. = socius, a companion, socii, 

Sol = the Sun. 
sol..— solemnis, solemn, 
solet = is usual, 
stat - stands, is to be found, 
sub = under, 
subito = immediately, 
suff'r. = suffragia; see page 192. 

sum = I am; est, he is; sunt, they 

are; erat, he was; erant, they 


sumitur = is taken. 

super = above. 

superfuit = remained over. 

Suppl. = supplementum , the sup- 
plement, (to the Breviary or Missal). 

supra — above, over. 

suus = his, sua, hers, suam, suum, 
sui, suo, suorum &c. 


Tacet — is silent. 

talis = such a one ; taliter, in such 

a manner, 
tarn = so ; tarn — tarn, as well — 

as also. 


tamquam = as; tarn — quam, as 

Veil — as also, 
tantus = so great, so much, 
tenet = holds, 
ter — thrice. 

terra. ■= terminator, is concluded, 
tertius -= ihe third. 
Tert. = Tertia, Terce; see p. 195. 
thuriferarius = the thurifer , or 

incense bearer, 
tollitur = is removed, taken away, 
tot = so many; toties = so often, 
tot. = totus, totius, totum &c. all, 


Tr. Tractus, the Tract ; see p. 128. 
Transfig. — Trans fig uratio, Trans- 

Transl. = translatio, a translation 
or transference of a Fest. 

tres, trim, trium &c. = three. 

Triduum = a 3-d ays Festival or 
Devotion: triduum sacrum, the 
sacred Triduum, or 3 last days of 
Holy Week. 

Trin. = Trinitas, the Trinity. 

turn = then, thereupon ; tum—quum, 
then — as well as. 

trine = then. 


U. = in many Directories or Ordos 
this letter is' put for vl — violaceus, 
violet (the colour of the vestments). 

ubi = where. 

ubicumque = wherever. 

ubiqne = everywhere. 

ult. = tdtimus, the last. 

ultra — beyond, farther, in excess of. 

unacum = together with. 

unicus = one only, singular. 

unus = one. 

usque (ad) = up to, as far as. 
usus = custom. 

uterque = both; e. g. in utrisque 
Vesperis, in both 1 st and 2 nd Ve- 

utrum = whether (in interrogat ions). 


vacat = falls out, is wanting. 

vadit — goes. 

valde = very. 

valet = serves, is available. 

variatur == is changed. 

varius = different. 

vel = or; velut, as if. 

Ven. = Venerabilis, Venerable. 

verbura = word. 

Verna pars = Spring. Quarter , or 

2nd vol. of the Breviary, 
vero = but, nevertheless, 
y. = Versus or Versiculus; Vv. = 

Versiculi: see Bespons. 
verus = true. 
Vesp. = Vesperce, Vespers, 
vespere = in the evening, 
vestis = a garment. 
Vid. = Vidua, a Widow, 
vide = see. 
videtur = it seems. 
Vig. — Vigilia, the Vigil, 
viginti = twenty, 
vl. == violaceus, violet. 
V. = Virgo, a Virgin, 
v. = viridis, green (colour of the 

Visitatio = Visitation 
vitandus = to be avoided.- 
vivus = living, 
vix = scarcely. 

votum = a vow; votiva, votive, 
vuln. = vulnera, wounds. 


Page 8, last line For 1020, read 1002.. 
" 16, line 6; For Masses for the dead funerals &c; read Masses 

for the dead, funerals &c. 
" 39, "6; " rythmical; read rhythmical. 
" 45, in foot-note; For reltiive; read relative. 
" 57, line 7; For cantiously; read cautiously. 
" 68, " 17; " Juda; read Jacob. 

" 76, in foot-note, line 5; For The notions; read Then notions. 

" 78, line 13, omit the words "and thus." 

" 87, " 6, For o; read of. 

" 92, " 23, " For raise; read raised. 

" 113, last foot-note; insert after "case;" as to the repetition of 

the Antiphon. 
41 128, line 9, For preceeding; read preceding. 

"173, " 5, " jj-rfbz; read E^E. 

e-jus e-jus 
" 177, " 18, " 3 Psalms; read the Psalms. 

Publisher: Frederick Pustet inRatisbon, New York & Cincinnati. 







In order that unity, which is so much required in execut- 
ing Liturgical singing, may be obtained, His Holiness Pius IX. 
has desired that an Official edition of books of Ecclesiastical 
Singing for the use of the whole Catholic Church be published. 

The most valued version of the Gregorian Chant, sancti- 
fied by the tradition of Rome, was revised and completed by 
a special commission formed by the Sacred Congregation of 
Rites, and then published by Frederick Pustet in Ratisbon, 
under the guidance of the same commission. 

It is evident, that no other Choral books can claim the 
authenticity, which belongs to this edition. This only has ob- 
tained the exclusive privilege of being not only approved by 
the Holy See, but also of being published by the Sacred Con- 
gregation of Rites, » cur ante Ss. Rituum Congregatione.« His 
Holiness recommends it in words sufficiently strong to gain 
over those whose preferences are for other editions. We 
give here an extract from a Brief addressed May 30th 1873 
to the Publisher: 

"Atque adeo hanc ipsam dicti Gradualis Romani editio- 
"nem, tuis sumptibus ac laboribus exaratam, Reverendissimis 
"locorum Ordinariis, iisque omnibus, quibus Musices sacrse 
u cura est, magnopere commendamus; eo vel magis, quod sit Notiis 
"maxime in votis, ut, cum in ceteris, quae ad sacram Liturgiam 
"pertinent, turn etiam in cantu, una, cunctis in locis ac Dicece- 
"sibus. eademque ratio servetur, qua Romana utitur Ecclesia. 
"Interea, dum te, dilecte fili, etiam atque etiam in Domino 
u hortamur, ut pergas tenere istam viam, quam instituisti, et 
"laudum tuarum vestighs insistere, aliud hoc tuse operositatis 
u argumentum expectamus , ut, qua? adhuc edenda tibi super- 
u sunt de Gregoriano Cantu volumina, quibus inchoata olim a 

Publisher: Frederick Pustet in Ratisbon, New York & Cincinnati. 

"fel. mem. Paulo PP. Y. Praedecessore Nostro perficitur editio, 
■"tandem in lucem proferas. Quce ut alacrius prasstare veils, 
"jura omnia et prwilegia, qua? ob ecclesiasticorum Ubrorum 
"a te peractas editiones, ab hac Sancta Sede, per Sacrorum 
"Rituum Congregationem, concessa tibi fuerunt, hisce Nostris 
"Uteris confirmamus, iterumque, si opus fuerit, elargimur; 
"ac simul benevolentiae Nostra certissimum pignus &c." 

Their Lordships the Archbishops and Bishops cf England and 

Ireland adopted these Official Choral books for their Dioceses 
and recommended their common use. In the Acta et Decreta 
Concilii Provincialis Westmonaster. IV. we read: (Decret.XIIL) 

"Quoad determinatam hujus cantus ecclesiastici ibrmam, 
"renovamus Primi Concilii Westmonasteriensis Decretum: 'Ut 
"uniformitas introducatur, volumus et ubique, sed maxime in 
"collegiis, ubicumque in Missa et in Officiis adhibetur Cantus 
"Planus, seu Gregorianus, Cantus Romanus solus adhibeatur.' . . . 

"Cum vero hucusque vix aut ne vix quidem genuiuum 
"Romani Cantus exemplar obtineri potuerit, nunc benignitate 
"Ss. D. N. PII Papse IX. unicuique prsesto est. Quapropter, 
u obsecundantes votis Sanctitatis Sua?, illam nominatim Romani 
u Cantus editionem quce modo Ratisbonce editur tamquam nor- 
u mam adoptamus, ut sensim sine sensu in nostris dicecesibus 
"exoptata uniformitas in cantu obtineri valeat. Ita demum 
"net id quod Summus Pontifex se maxime in votis habere 
"testatur, 'ut cum in cseteris quae ad sacram Liturgiam perti- 
"nent, turn etiam in cantu, una, cunctis in locis ac dioecesibus, 
"eademque ratio servetur qua Romana utitur Ecclesia.' 

The decrees of the Synod of their Lordships the Archbishops 
and Bishops of Ireland at Maynooth (1875) contain the follow- 
ing words : (Decretum XIII.) 

"Libri vero chorales et liturgici nuper Ratisbonce a Pustet, 
"Bibliopola Catholico, editi in missis et vesper is cantandis tarn 
"in Seminariis quam Ecclesiis posthac quamprimum adhibean- 
u tur. Hi nempe libri a Smo. D. PIO IX. plurimum commen- 
"dantur eo quocl in eis ad normam veterum manuscriptorum 
"Ecclesiaa Romanae verus et genuinus cautus Gregorianus tra- 
"datur et 'eo vel magis, ut addit idem- Pontifex, quod sit nobis 
"maxime in votis, ut cum in caeteris quae ad sacram liturgiam 
"pertinent, tarn etiam in cantu, una, cunctis in locis et dice- 
cesibus, eademque ratio servetur, qua Romana utitur Ecclesia.' 

Publisher: Frederick Pustet in Ratisbon, New York & Cincinnati. 

Finally, we cite a passage of a Pastoral Letter, adressed 
by His Eminence the Cardinal-Archbishop of Westminster, 

January 1877: 

U I think also it may be satisfactory to you to know that 
4 'the edition of the Graduate published at Ratisbon, and sanc- 
"tioned by the Holy See, has been elaborately revised by 
"a commission in Rome. It is therefore of Roman origin, 
"though printed elsewhere. This information I received from 
"the late secretary of the Congregation of Rites , Cardinal 
"Bartolini, and irom Mgr. Ricci, president of the commission 
"for the revision of the Graduate and Vesperale Romanum." 

We give here below, . a complete list of those works al- 
ready published, and of those that have yet to appear. 

L Graduate de Tempore et de Sanctis juxta ritum S. 
Romans Ecclesise &c. Sub Auspiciis S. D. N. 
Pii Papse IX. ./Durante S. Rit. Congr. Cum Privil. 
Second edition. 8°. Red and black. 

Propriuni pro Auglia. 
" pro Hibernia. 

— — In imperial folio. Red and black. 

No. I. white paper, titled in Chromo. 

No. II. best handmade paper, titled in Chromo. 

No. III. extra strong handmade paper, titled in Chromo. 

Extracted, and sold separately from "Graduate Romanum": 

A. Ordinarium Missae &o. sive Cantiones Missse communes pro diversitate 

Temporis et Festorum per annum excerptse ex Graduali Romano 
quod curavit S. Rituum Congregatio &c. Editio augmentata tertia. 
8°. Red and black. 

— — In imperial folio. Red and black. 

No. I. white glazed paper. 
No. II. best handmade paper. 

B. Officiuin Defunctorum nnacum Missa et Absolution e eorumdem et 

Ordo Exsequiarum pro Adultis et Parvulis. Ex Rituali , Missali, 
Graduali et Breviario Rom. prsevia Approbat. Congreg. S. Rituum 
adcurate depromptus et pro majori canentium prsesertim commoditate 
apte dispositus. 8°. Red and black. 

C. Processionale Romanum e Rituali Romano depromptus , additis quae 

similia in Missali et Pontificali Romano habentur &c. , pro majori 
canentium prsesertim commoditate apte disposita. Cum Approb. 8°. 
Red and black. 

To be had from all booksellers. 

Publisher : Frederick Pustet in Ratisbon, New York & Cincinnati. 

II. Directorium Chori ad usuni omnium Ecclesiarum, 
in quibus Officium Divinum juxta Ritum S. Rom. Ecclesiae 
cantari solet. Sub Auspiciis S. D. N. Pii Papae IX. 
Curante S. Rituum Congr egatione. Cum Privilegio. 
8°. Red and black. ■ 

III. Antiphonarium Romanum. In folio. 

This work is still in press to appear in 1878; the second 
volume which owing to its importance and great usefulness will be 
first published, contains: The Little Hours of the Roman Psalter, 
the Proper of Seasons, the Proper and Common of Saints ; the first 
volume contains all the Matins of the Roman Breviary , i. e. Invita- 
torium, Hymns, Antiphons, Psalms and Responses. 

Besides this folio edition , the Congregation of Rites has allowed 
the publication in parts (8vo size) of Offices most frequently in use — 
the list is appended. % 

A. Vesperale Romanum juxta Ordinem Breviarii Romani cum cantu emen- 

dato editum sub Auspiciis Sanctissimi Domini Nostri Pii Papse IX. 
curante Sacr. Rituum Congr. Cum Privilegio. 8°. Red and black. 

Proprium pro Anglia. 
" pro Hibernia. 

B. Officium Hebdomadae Sanctae a Dominica in Palmis usque ad Sabba- 

tum in Albis juxta Ordinem Breviarii ; Missalis et Pontificalis Romani. 
Cum Cantu emendato editum sub Auspiciis Sanctissimi Domini Nostri 
Pii Papee IX. Curante Sacr. Rituum Congregations Cum Privilegio. 
8°. Red and black. 

C. CanfliS Passionis D. N. J. Cfrr. secundum quatuor Evangelistas , de- 

promptus ex Officio Hebdomadae Sanctse, quod curavit Sacr. Rituum 
Congregatio et divisus in tribus fasciculis quorum primus con- 
tinet verba Chronista3 ; secundus partem Christi, tertillS 
partes Synagog88. Secundo fasciculo adjiciuntur L amentatio ne s 
Tridui Sacri et tertio additur Prseconium Paschale Sabbati Sancti. 
In folio. (Still in press to appear in summer 1877.) 

D. Officium Nativitatis D. N. J. Chr. &c. Cum Cantu ex Antiphonario 

Romano. Curante S. Rituum Congreg. 8°. Red and black. 

To be bad from all booksellers.